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Title: CRISPR/Cas9 Editing of Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Engineering Inflammation-Resistant Tissues: GENOME-EDITED iPSCs FOR IL-1-RESISTANT CARTILAGE
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Arthritis & Rheumatology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1111 to 1121
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Chronically high levels of inorganic nutrients have been documented in Florida’s coral reefs and are linked to increased prevalence and severity of coral bleaching and disease. Naturally disease-resistant genotypes of the staghorn coralAcropora cervicornisare rare, and it is unknown whether prolonged exposure to acute or chronic high nutrient levels will reduce the disease tolerance of these genotypes. Recently, the relative abundance of the bacterial genusAquarickettsiawas identified as a significant indicator of disease susceptibility inA. cervicornis, and the abundance of this bacterial species was previously found to increase under chronic and acute nutrient enrichment. We therefore examined the impact of common constituents of nutrient pollution (phosphate, nitrate, and ammonium) on microbial community structure in a disease-resistant genotype with naturally low abundances ofAquarickettsia.We found that although this putative parasite responded positively to nutrient enrichment in a disease-resistant host, relative abundances remained low (< 0.5%). Further, while microbial diversity was not altered significantly after 3 weeks of nutrient enrichment, 6 weeks of enrichment was sufficient to shift microbiome diversity and composition. Coral growth rates were also reduced by 6 weeks of nitrate treatment compared to untreated conditions. Together these data suggest that the microbiomes of disease-resistantA. cervicornismay be initially resistant to shifts in microbial community structure, but succumb to compositional and diversity alterations after more sustained environmental pressure. As the maintenance of disease-resistant genotypes is critical for coral population management and restoration, a complete understanding of how these genotypes respond to environmental stressors is necessary to predict their longevity.

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  3. Dudley, Edward G. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages (phages) are currently available for use by the food industry to control the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes . Although phage biocontrols are effective under specific conditions, their use can select for phage-resistant bacteria that repopulate phage-treated environments. Here, we performed short-term coevolution experiments to investigate the impact of single phages and a two-phage cocktail on the regrowth of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes and the adaptation of the phages to overcome this resistance. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify mutations in the target host that confer phage resistance and in the phages that alter host range. We found that infections with Listeria phages LP-048, LP-125, or a combination of both select for different populations of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes bacteria with different regrowth times. Phages isolated from the end of the coevolution experiments were found to have gained the ability to infect phage-resistant mutants of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes strains previously found to be broadly resistant to phage infection. Phages isolated from coinfected cultures were identified as recombinants of LP-048 and LP-125. Interestingly, recombination events occurred twice independently in a locus encoding two proteins putatively involved in DNA binding. We show that short-term coevolution of phages and their hosts can be utilized to obtain mutant and recombinant phages with adapted host ranges. These laboratory-evolved phages may be useful for limiting the emergence of phage resistance and for targeting strains that show general resistance to wild-type (WT) phages. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is a life-threatening bacterial foodborne pathogen that can persist in food processing facilities for years. Phages can be used to control L. monocytogenes in food production, but phage-resistant bacterial subpopulations can regrow in phage-treated environments. Coevolution experiments were conducted on a Listeria phage-host system to provide insight into the genetic variation that emerges in both the phage and bacterial host under reciprocal selective pressure. As expected, mutations were identified in both phage and host, but additionally, recombination events were shown to have repeatedly occurred between closely related phages that coinfected L. monocytogenes . This study demonstrates that in vitro evolution of phages can be utilized to expand the host range and improve the long-term efficacy of phage-based control of L. monocytogenes . This approach may also be applied to other phage-host systems for applications in biocontrol, detection, and phage therapy. 
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