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Title: Effect of annealing atmosphere p O 2 on leakage current in 80(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 -20(Bi 0.5 K 0.5 )TiO 3 piezoelectric thin films
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
American Institute of Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Here, in ionically conducting Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 (NBT), we explore the link between growth parameters, stoichiometry and resistive switching behavior and show NBT to be a highly tunable system. We show that the combination of oxygen ionic vacancies and low-level electronic conduction is important for controlling Schottky barrier interfacial switching. We achieve a large ON/OFF ratio for high resistance/low resistance ( R HRS / R LRS ), enabled by an almost constant R HRS of ∼10 9 Ω, and composition-tunable R LRS value modulated by growth temperature. R HRS / R LRS ratios of up to 10 4 and pronounced resistive switching at low voltages (SET voltage of <1.2 V without high-voltage electroforming), strong endurance (no change in resistance states after several 10 3 cycles), uniformity, stable switching and fast switching speed are achieved. Of particular interest is that the best performance is achieved at the lowest growth temperature studied (600 °C), which is opposite to the case of most other perovskite oxides for memristors, where higher growth temperatures are required for optimum performance. This is understood based on the oxygen vacancy control of interfacial switching in NBT, whereas a range of other mechanisms (including filamentary switching)more »occur in other perovskites. The study of NBT has enabled us to determine key parameters for achieving high performance memristors.« less
  2. (Bi 1/2 Na 1/2 )TiO 3 (BNT) based ceramics have been the hot topic for a few years because of their multiple functions, from the piezoelectric properties to more recently the electrostatic energy storage performance. However, some basic issues are still unclear, preventing their wide application in real devices. One of them is the underlying conduction mechanism, the interplay of electronic and ionic carriers as a mixed ionic case and the subsequent quantification. This paper deals with the most basic compositions, which are the typical ones from the (1 − x )(Bi 1/2 Na 1/2 )TiO 3 – x BaTiO 3 (BNT– x BT) phase diagram. The conductivity is primarily investigated by impedance spectroscopy, while different equivalent circuits are applied to different conduction mechanisms. A transition from predominantly ionic to predominantly electronic conduction is revealed to occur with the increase in BaTiO 3 concentration. The mixed ionic–electronic conduction in the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, namely BNT–7%BT, is identified and then quantified. To verify our interpretation of impedance results, dc degradation is, for the first time, conducted in this family of materials, from which the electronic and ionic conductions can be easily separated by accessing the mean time tomore »failure. The successful combination of the two methods enables us to have an overview of how the oxygen vacancy dynamics in the BNT– x BT system depends upon the phase nature or the domain structure.« less