skip to main content

Title: Neurotransmitters: The Critical Modulators Regulating Gut-Brain Axis: ROLE OF SEROTONIN AND CATECHOLAMINES IN GUT/BRAIN AXIS
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Cellular Physiology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2359 to 2372
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Xenoestrogens are chemicals found in plant products, such as genistein (GEN), and in industrial chemicals, e.g., bisphenol A (BPA), present in plastics and other products that are prevalent in the environment. Early exposure to such endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) may affect brain development by directly disrupting neural programming and/or through the microbiome-gut-brain axis. To test this hypothesis, California mice (Peromyscus californicus) offspring were exposed through the maternal diet to GEN (250 mg/kg feed weight) or BPA (5 mg/kg feed weight, low dose- LD or 50 mg/kg, upper dose-UD), and dams were placed on these diets two weeks prior to breeding, throughout gestation,more »and lactation. Various behaviors, gut microbiota, and fecal metabolome were assessed at 90 days of age. The LD but not UD of BPA exposure resulted in individuals spending more time engaging in repetitive behaviors. GEN exposed individuals were more likely to exhibit such behaviors and showed socio-communicative disturbances. BPA and GEN exposed females had increased number of metabolites involved in carbohydrate metabolism and synthesis. Males exposed to BPA or GEN showed alterations in lysine degradation and phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism. Current findings indicate cause for concern that developmental exposure to BPA or GEN might affect the microbiome-gut-brain axis.

    « less
  2. The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis. We are now just beginning to understand the intricate relationships among themore »brain, microbiome, and immune system and how they work in concert to influence behavior. The effects of different forms of experience (e.g., changes in diet, immune challenge, and psychological stress) on the brain, gut microbiome, and the immune system have often been studied independently. Though because these systems do not work in isolation, it is essential to shift our focus to the connections among them as we move forward in our investigations of the gut-brain axis, the shaping of behavioral phenotypes, and the possible clinical implications of these interactions. This review summarizes the recent progress the field has made in understanding the important role the gut microbiome plays in the modulation of social and affective behaviors, as well as some of the intricate mechanisms by which the microbiome may be communicating with the brain and immune system.« less