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Title: The neglected Indo-Gangetic Plains low-level jet and its importance for moisture transport and precipitation during the peak summer monsoon: The Indo-Gangetic Low-Level Jet
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
8601 to 8610
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract The Great Plains (GP) southerly nocturnal low-level jet (GPLLJ) is a dominant contributor to the region’s warm-season (May–September) mean and extreme precipitation, wind energy generation, and severe weather outbreaks—including mesoscale convective systems. The spatiotemporal structure, variability, and impact of individual GPLLJ events are closely related to their degree of upper-level synoptic coupling, which varies from strong coupling in synoptic trough–ridge environments to weak coupling in quiescent, synoptic ridge environments. Here, we apply an objective dynamic classification of GPLLJ upper-level coupling and fully characterize strongly coupled (C) and relatively uncoupled (UC) GPLLJs from the perspective of the ground-based observer. Through composite analyses of C and UC GPLLJ event samples taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ Coupled Earth Reanalysis of the twentieth century (CERA-20C), we address how the frequency of these jet types, as well as their inherent weather- and climate-relevant characteristics—including wind speed, direction, and shear; atmospheric stability; and precipitation—vary on diurnal and monthly time scales across the southern, central, and northern subregions of the GP. It is shown that C and UC GPLLJ events have similar diurnal phasing, but the diurnal amplitude is much greater for UC GPLLJs. C GPLLJs tend to have a faster andmore »more elevated jet nose, less low-level wind shear, and enhanced CAPE and precipitation. UC GPLLJs undergo a larger inertial oscillation (Blackadar mechanism) for all subregions, and C GPLLJs have greater geostrophic forcing (Holton mechanism) in the southern and northern GP. The results underscore the need to differentiate between C and UC GPLLJs in future seasonal forecast and climate prediction activities.« less
  2. Abstract

    Low-level jets (LLJ) around the world critically support the food, water, and energy security in regions that they traverse. For the purposes of development planning and weather and climate prediction, it is important to improve understanding of how LLJs interact with the land surface and upper-atmospheric flow, and collectively, how LLJs have and may change over time. This study details the development and application of a new automated, dynamical objective classification of upper-atmospheric jet stream coupling based on a merging of the Bonner–Whiteman vertical wind shear classification and the finite-amplitude local wave activity diagnostic. The classification approach is transferable globally, but applied here only for the Great Plains (GP) LLJ (GPLLJ). The analysis spans the period from 1901 to 2010, enabled by the ECMWF climate-quality, coupled Earth reanalysis of the twentieth century. Overall, statistically significant declines in total GPLLJ event frequency over the twentieth century are detected across the entire GP corridor and attributed to declines in uncoupled GPLLJ frequency. Composites of lower- and upper-atmospheric flow are shown to capture major differences in the climatological, coupled GPLLJ, and uncoupled GPLLJ synoptic environments. Detailed analyses for southern, central, and northern GP subregions further highlight synoptic differences between weak and strongmore »GPLLJs and provide quantification of correlations between total, coupled, and uncoupled GPLLJ frequencies and relevant atmospheric anomalies. Because uncoupled GPLLJs tend to be associated with decreased precipitation and low-level wind speed and enhanced U.S. ridge strength, this finding may suggest that support for drought over the twentieth century has waned.

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  3. The Great Plains (GP) low-level jet (GPLLJ) contributes to GP warm season water resources (precipitation), wind resources, and severe weather outbreaks. Past research has shown that synoptic and local mesoscale physical mechanisms (Holton and Blackadar mechanisms) are required to explain GPLLJ variability. Although soil moisture–PBL interactions are central to local mechanistic theories, the diurnal effect of regional soil moisture anomalies on GPLLJ speed, northward penetration, and propensity for severe weather is not well known. In this study, two 31-member WRF-ARW stochastic kinetic energy backscatter scheme ensembles simulate a typical warm season GPLLJ case under CONUS-wide wet and dry soil moisture scenarios. In the GP (24°–48°N, 103°–90°W), ensemble mean differences in sensible heating and PBL height of 25–150 W m −2 and 100–700 m, respectively, at 2100 UTC (afternoon) culminate in GPLLJ 850-hPa wind speed differences of 1–4 m s −1 12 hours later (0900 UTC; early morning). Greater heat accumulation in the daytime PBL over dry soil impacts the east–west geopotential height gradient in the GP (synoptic conditions and Holton mechanism) resulting in a deeper thermal low in the northern GP, causing increases in the geostrophic wind. Enhanced daytime turbulent mixing over dry soil impacts the PBL structure (Blackadar mechanism),more »leading to increased ageostrophic wind. Overnight geostrophic and ageostrophic winds constructively interact, leading to a faster nocturnal GPLLJ over dry soil. Ensemble differences in CIN (~50–150 J kg −1 ) and CAPE (~500–1000 J kg −1 ) have implications for severe weather predictability.« less