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Title: Reduced phase noise in an erbium frequency comb via intensity noise suppression
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Optics Express
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  2. Abstract

    We study the distribution over measurement outcomes of noisy random quantum circuits in the regime of low fidelity, which corresponds to the setting where the computation experiences at least one gate-level error with probability close to one. We model noise by adding a pair of weak, unital, single-qubit noise channels after each two-qubit gate, and we show that for typical random circuit instances, correlations between the noisy output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$pnoisyand the corresponding noiseless output distribution$$p_{\text {ideal}}$$pidealshrink exponentially with the expected number of gate-level errors. Specifically, the linear cross-entropy benchmarkFthat measures this correlation behaves as$$F=\text {exp}(-2s\epsilon \pm O(s\epsilon ^2))$$F=exp(-2sϵ±O(sϵ2)), where$$\epsilon $$ϵis the probability of error per circuit location andsis the number of two-qubit gates. Furthermore, if the noise is incoherent—for example, depolarizing or dephasing noise—the total variation distance between the noisy output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$pnoisyand the uniform distribution$$p_{\text {unif}}$$punifdecays at precisely the same rate. Consequently, the noisy output distribution can be approximated as$$p_{\text {noisy}}\approx Fp_{\text {ideal}}+ (1-F)p_{\text {unif}}$$pnoisyFpideal+(1-F)punif. In other words, although at least one local error occurs with probability$$1-F$$1-F, the errors are scrambled by the random quantum circuit and can be treated as global white noise, contributing completely uniform output. Importantly, we upper bound the average total variation error in this approximation by$$O(F\epsilon \sqrt{s})$$O(Fϵs). Thus, the “white-noise approximation” is meaningful when$$\epsilon \sqrt{s} \ll 1$$ϵs1, a quadratically weaker condition than the$$\epsilon s\ll 1$$ϵs1requirement to maintain high fidelity. The bound applies if the circuit size satisfies$$s \ge \Omega (n\log (n))$$sΩ(nlog(n)), which corresponds to onlylogarithmic depthcircuits, and if, additionally, the inverse error rate satisfies$$\epsilon ^{-1} \ge {\tilde{\Omega }}(n)$$ϵ-1Ω~(n), which is needed to ensure errors are scrambled faster thanFdecays. The white-noise approximation is useful for salvaging the signal from a noisy quantum computation; for example, it was an underlying assumption in complexity-theoretic arguments that noisy random quantum circuits cannot be efficiently sampled classically, even when the fidelity is low. Our method is based on a map from second-moment quantities in random quantum circuits to expectation values of certain stochastic processes for which we compute upper and lower bounds.

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  3. Parameterized Quantum Circuits (PQC) are promising towards quantum advantage on near-term quantum hardware. However, due to the large quantum noises (errors), the performance of PQC models has a severe degradation on real quantum devices. Take Quantum Neural Network (QNN) as an example, the accuracy gap between noise-free simulation and noisy results on IBMQ-Yorktown for MNIST-4 classification is over 60%. Existing noise mitigation methods are general ones without leveraging unique characteristics of PQC; on the other hand, existing PQC work does not consider noise effect. To this end, we present QuantumNAT, a PQC-specific framework to perform noise-aware optimizations in both training and inference stages to improve robustness. We experimentally observe that the effect of quantum noise to PQC measurement outcome is a linear map from noise-free outcome with a scaling and a shift factor. Motivated by that, we propose post-measurement normalization to mitigate the feature distribution differences between noise-free and noisy scenarios. Furthermore, to improve the robustness against noise, we propose noise injection to the training process by inserting quantum error gates to PQC according to realistic noise models of quantum hardware. Finally, post-measurement quantization is introduced to quantize the measurement outcomes to discrete values, achieving the denoising effect. Extensive experiments on 8 classification tasks using 6 quantum devices demonstrate that QuantumNAT improves accuracy by up to 43%, and achieves over 94% 2-class, 80% 4-class, and 34% 10-class classification accuracy measured on real quantum computers. The code for construction and noise-aware training of PQC is available in the TorchQuantum library. 
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