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Title: Trichoplusia ni Kinesin-1 Associates with Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Is Required for Production of Budded Virus
ABSTRACT The mechanism by which nucleocapsids of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) egress from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, leading to the formation of budded virus (BV), is not known. AC141 is a nucleocapsid-associated protein required for BV egress and has previously been shown to be associated with β-tubulin. In addition, AC141 and VP39 were previously shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging to interact directly with the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-1 light chain (KLC) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. These results suggested that microtubule transport systems may be involved in baculovirus nucleocapsid egress and BV formation. In this study, we investigated the role of lepidopteran microtubule transport using coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, yeast two-hybrid, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) analyses. We show that nucleocapsid AC141 associates with the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni KLC and kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization. Kinesin-1, AC141, and microtubules colocalized predominantly at the plasma membrane. In addition, the nucleocapsid proteins VP39, FP25, and BV/ODV-C42 were also coimmunoprecipitated with T. ni KLC. Direct analysis of the role of T. ni kinesin-1 by downregulation of KLC by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in BV production. Nucleocapsids labeled with VP39 fused with three copies of more » the mCherry fluorescent protein also colocalized with microtubules. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed no evidence of a direct interaction between kinesin-1 and AC141 or VP39, suggesting that either other nucleocapsid proteins or adaptor proteins may be required. These results further support the conclusion that microtubule transport is required for AcMNPV BV formation. IMPORTANCE In two key processes of the replication cycle of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), nucleocapsids are transported through the cell. These include (i) entry of budded virus (BV) into the host cell and (ii) egress and budding of nucleocapsids newly produced from the plasma membrane. Prior studies have shown that the entry of nucleocapsids involves the polymerization of actin to propel nucleocapsids to nuclear pores and entry into the nucleus. For the spread of infection, progeny viruses must rapidly exit the infected cells, but the mechanism by which AcMNPV nucleocapsids traverse the cytoplasm is unknown. In this study, we examined whether nucleocapsids interact with lepidopteran kinesin-1 motor molecules and are potentially carried as cargo on microtubules to the plasma membrane in AcMNPV-infected cells. This study indicates that microtubule transport is utilized for the production of budded virus. « less
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Journal Name:
Journal of Virology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
3480 to 3495
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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