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Title: Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea
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  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Cultivated strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) is an important fruit crop species whose fruits are enjoyed by many worldwide. An octoploid of hybrid origin, the complex genome of this species was recently sequenced, serving as a key reference genome for cultivated strawberry and related species of the Rosaceae family. The current annotation of the F. ananassa genome mainly relies on ab initio predictions and, to a lesser extent, transcriptome data. Here, we present the structure and functional reannotation of the F. ananassa genome based on one PacBio full-length RNA library and ninety-two Illumina RNA-Seq libraries. This improved annotation of the F. ananassa genome, v1.0.a2, comprises a total of 108,447 gene models, with 97.85% complete BUSCOs. The models of 19,174 genes were modified, 360 new genes were identified, and 11,044 genes were found to have alternatively spliced isoforms. Additionally, we constructed a strawberry genome database (SGD) for strawberry gene homolog searching and annotation downloading. Finally, the transcriptome of the receptacles and achenes of F. ananassa at four developmental stages were reanalyzed and qualified, and the expression profiles of all the genes in this annotation are also provided. Together, this study provides an updated annotation of the F. ananassa genome, which will facilitate genomic analyses across the Rosaceae family and gene functional studies in cultivated strawberry. 
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  2. Abstract Background Calcareous outcrops, rocky areas composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), often host a diverse, specialized, and threatened biomineralizing fauna. Despite the repeated evolution of physiological and morphological adaptations to colonize these mineral rich substrates, there is a lack of genomic resources for calcareous rock endemic species. This has hampered our ability to understand the genomic mechanisms underlying calcareous rock specialization and manage these threatened species. Results Here, we present a new draft genome assembly of the threatened limestone endemic land snail Oreohelix idahoensis and genome skim data for two other Oreohelix species. The O. idahoensis genome assembly (scaffold N50: 404.19 kb; 86.6% BUSCO genes) is the largest (~ 5.4 Gb) and most repetitive mollusc genome assembled to date (85.74% assembly size). The repetitive landscape was unusually dominated by an expansion of long terminal repeat (LTR) transposable elements (57.73% assembly size) which have shaped the evolution genome size, gene composition through retrotransposition of host genes, and ectopic recombination. Genome skims revealed repeat content is more than 2–3 fold higher in limestone endemic O. idahoensis compared to non-calcareous Oreohelix species. Gene family size analysis revealed stress and biomineralization genes have expanded significantly in the O. idahoensis genome . Conclusions Hundreds of threatened land snail species are endemic to calcareous rock regions but there are very few genomic resources available to guide their conservation or determine the genomic architecture underlying CaCO 3 resource specialization. Our study provides one of the first high quality draft genomes of a calcareous rock endemic land snail which will serve as a foundation for the conservation genomics of this threatened species and for other groups. The high proportion and activity of LTRs in the O. idahoensis genome is unprecedented in molluscan genomics and sheds new light how transposable element content can vary across molluscs. The genomic resources reported here will enable further studies of the genomic mechanisms underlying calcareous rock specialization and the evolution of transposable element content across molluscs. 
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  3. Abstract

    In the legume‐rhizobia mutualism, the benefit each partner derives from the other depends on the genetic identity of both host and rhizobial symbiont. To gain insight into the extent of genome × genome interactions on hosts at the molecular level and to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the variation, we examined host gene expression within nodules (the plant organ where the symbiosis occurs) of four genotypes ofMedicago truncatulagrown with eitherEnsifer melilotiorE. medicaesymbionts. These host × symbiont combinations show significant variation in nodule and biomass phenotypes. Likewise, combinations differ in their transcriptomes: host, symbiont and host × symbiont affected the expression of 70%, 27% and 21%, respectively, of the approximately 27,000 host genes expressed in nodules. Genes with the highest levels of expression often varied between hosts and/or symbiont strain and include leghemoglobins that modulate oxygen availability and hundreds of Nodule Cysteine‐Rich (NCR) peptides involved in symbiont differentiation and viability in nodules. Genes with host × symbiont‐dependent expression were enriched for functions related to resource exchange between partners (sulphate/iron/amino acid transport and dicarboxylate/amino acid synthesis). These enrichments suggest mechanisms for host control of the currencies of the mutualism. The transcriptome ofM. truncatulaaccessionHM101 (A17), the reference genome used for most molecular research, was less affected by symbiont identity than the other hosts. These findings underscore the importance of assessing the molecular basis of variation in ecologically important traits, particularly those involved in biotic interactions, in multiple genetic contexts.

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