- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Learning representations of sets of nodes in a graph is crucial for applications ranging from node-role discovery to link prediction and molecule classification. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved great success in graph representation learning. However, expressive power of GNNs is limited by the 1-Weisfeiler-Lehman (WL) test and thus GNNs generate identical representations for graph substructures that may in fact be very different. More powerful GNNs, proposed recently by mimicking higher-order-WL tests, only focus on representing entire graphs and they are computationally inefficient as they cannot utilize sparsity of the underlying graph. Here we propose and mathematically analyze a general class of structure related features, termed Distance Encoding (DE). DE assists GNNs in representing any set of nodes, while providing strictly more expressive power than the 1-WL test. DE captures the distance between the node set whose representation is to be learned and each node in the graph. To capture the distance DE can apply various graph-distance measures such as shortest path distance or generalized PageRank scores. We propose two ways for GNNs to use DEs (1) as extra node features, and (2) as controllers of message aggregation in GNNs. Both approaches can utilize the sparse structure of the underlyingmore »
Simplicial neural networks (SNNs) have recently emerged as a new direction in graph learning which expands the idea of convolutional architectures from node space to simplicial complexes on graphs. Instead of predominantly assessing pairwise relations among nodes as in the current practice, simplicial complexes allow us to describe higher-order interactions and multi-node graph structures. By building upon connection between the convolution operation and the new block Hodge-Laplacian, we propose the first SNN for link prediction. Our new Block Simplicial Complex Neural Networks (BScNets) model generalizes existing graph convolutional network (GCN) frameworks by systematically incorporating salient interactions among multiple higher-order graph structures of different dimensions. We discuss theoretical foundations behind BScNets and illustrate its utility for link prediction on eight real-world and synthetic datasets. Our experiments indicate that BScNets outperforms the state-of-the-art models by a significant margin while maintaining low computation costs. Finally, we show utility of BScNets as a new promising alternative for tracking spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and measuring the effectiveness of the healthcare risk mitigation strategies.
Predicting ncRNA–protein interactions based on dual graph convolutional network and pairwise learning
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have recently attracted considerable attention due to their key roles in biology. The ncRNA–proteins interaction (NPI) is often explored to reveal some biological activities that ncRNA may affect, such as biological traits, diseases, etc. Traditional experimental methods can accomplish this work but are often labor-intensive and expensive. Machine learning and deep learning methods have achieved great success by exploiting sufficient sequence or structure information. Graph Neural Network (GNN)-based methods consider the topology in ncRNA–protein graphs and perform well on tasks like NPI prediction. Based on GNN, some pairwise constraint methods have been developed to apply on homogeneous networks, but not used for NPI prediction on heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we construct a pairwise constrained NPI predictor based on dual Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) called NPI-DGCN. To our knowledge, our method is the first to train a heterogeneous graph-based model using a pairwise learning strategy. Instead of binary classification, we use a rank layer to calculate the score of an ncRNA–protein pair. Moreover, our model is the first to predict NPIs on the ncRNA–protein bipartite graph rather than the homogeneous graph. We transform the original ncRNA–protein bipartite graph into two homogenous graphs on which to exploremore »
Networks are a natural representation of complex systems across the sciences, and higher-order dependencies are central to the understanding and modeling of these systems. However, in many practical applications such as online social networks, networks are massive, dynamic, and naturally streaming, where pairwise interactions among vertices become available one at a time in some arbitrary order. The massive size and streaming nature of these networks allow only partial observation, since it is infeasible to analyze the entire network. Under such scenarios, it is challenging to study the higher-order structural and connectivity patterns of streaming networks. In this work, we consider the fundamental problem of estimating the higher-order dependencies using adaptive sampling. We propose a novel adaptive, single-pass sampling framework and unbiased estimators for higher-order network analysis of large streaming networks. Our algorithms exploit adaptive techniques to identify edges that are highly informative for efficiently estimating the higher-order structure of streaming networks from small sample data. We also introduce a novel James-Stein shrinkage estimator to reduce the estimation error. Our approach is fully analytic, computationally efficient, and can be incrementally updated in a streaming setting. Numerical experiments on large networks show that our approach is superior to baseline methods.
Network alignment (NA) is a fundamental problem in many application domains – from social networks, through biology and communications, to neuroscience. The main objective is to identify common nodes and most similar connections across multiple networks (resp. graphs). Many of the existing efforts focus on efficient anchor node linkage by leveraging various features and optimizing network mapping functions with the pairwise similarity between anchor nodes. Despite the recent advances, there still exist two kinds of challenges: (1) entangled node embeddings, arising from the contradictory goals of NA: embedding proximal nodes in a closed form for representation in a single network vs. discriminating among them when mapping the nodes across networks; and (2) lack of interpretability about the node matching and alignment, essential for understanding prediction tasks. We propose dNAME (disentangled Network Alignment with Matching Explainability) – a novel solution for NA in heterogeneous networks settings, based on a matching technique that embeds nodes in a disentangled and faithful manner. The NA task is cast as an adversarial optimization problem which learns a proximity-preserving model locally around the anchor nodes, while still being discriminative. We also introduce a method to explain our semi-supervised model with the theory of robust statistics, bymore »