skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, July 12 until 9:00 AM ET on Saturday, July 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: High‐Mobility Helical Tellurium Field‐Effect Transistors Enabled by Transfer‐Free, Low‐Temperature Direct Growth

The transfer‐free direct growth of high‐performance materials and devices can enable transformative new technologies. Here, room‐temperature field‐effect hole mobilities as high as 707 cm2V−1s−1are reported, achieved using transfer‐free, low‐temperature (≤120 °C) direct growth of helical tellurium (Te) nanostructure devices on SiO2/Si. The Te nanostructures exhibit significantly higher device performance than other low‐temperature grown semiconductors, and it is demonstrated that through careful control of the growth process, high‐performance Te can be grown on other technologically relevant substrates including flexible plastics like polyethylene terephthalate and graphene in addition to amorphous oxides like SiO2/Si and HfO2. The morphology of the Te films can be tailored by the growth temperature, and different carrier scattering mechanisms are identified for films with different morphologies. The transfer‐free direct growth of high‐mobility Te devices can enable major technological breakthroughs, as the low‐temperature growth and fabrication is compatible with the severe thermal budget constraints of emerging applications. For example, vertical integration of novel devices atop a silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor platform (thermal budget <450 °C) has been theoretically shown to provide a 10× systems level performance improvement, while flexible and wearable electronics (thermal budget <200 °C) can revolutionize defense and medical applications.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The large‐area synthesis of high‐quality MoS2plays an important role in realizing industrial applications of optoelectronics, nanoelectronics, and flexible devices. However, current techniques for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)‐grown MoS2require a high synthetic temperature and a transfer process, which limits its utilization in device fabrications. Here, the direct synthesis of high‐quality monolayer MoS2with the domain size up to 120 µm by metal‐organic CVD (MOCVD) at a temperature of 320 °C is reported. Owing to the low‐substrate temperature, the MOCVD‐grown MoS2exhibits low impurity doping and nearly unstrained properties on the growth substrate, demonstrating enhanced electronic performance with high electron mobility of 68.3 cm2V−1s−1at room temperature. In addition, by tuning the precursor ratio, a better understanding of the MoS2growth process via a geometric model of the MoS2flake shape, is developed, which can provide further guidance for the synthesis of 2D materials.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Solution‐processable semiconducting 2D nanoplates and 1D nanorods are attractive building blocks for diverse technologies, including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and electronics. However, transforming colloidal nanoparticles into high‐performance and flexible devices remains a challenge. For example, flexible films prepared by solution‐processed semiconducting nanocrystals are typically plagued by poor thermoelectric and electrical transport properties. Here, a highly scalable 3D conformal additive printing approach to directly convert solution‐processed 2D nanoplates and 1D nanorods into high‐performing flexible devices is reported. The flexible films printed using Sb2Te3nanoplates and subsequently sintered at 400 °C demonstrate exceptional thermoelectric power factor of 1.5 mW m−1K−2over a wide temperature range (350–550 K). By synergistically combining Sb2Te32D nanoplates with Te 1D nanorods, the power factor of the flexible film reaches an unprecedented maximum value of 2.2 mW m−1K−2at 500 K, which is significantly higher than the best reported values for p‐type flexible thermoelectric films. A fully printed flexible generator device exhibits a competitive electrical power density of 7.65 mW cm−2with a reasonably small temperature difference of 60 K. The versatile printing method for directly transforming nanoscale building blocks into functional devices paves the way for developing not only flexible energy harvesters but also a broad range of flexible/wearable electronics and sensors.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Flexible thermoelectric (TE) devices hold great promise for energy harvesting and cooling applications, with increasing significance to serve as perpetual power sources for flexible electronics and wearable devices. Despite unique and superior TE properties widely reported in nanocrystals, transforming these nanocrystals into flexible and functional forms remains a major challenge. Herein, demonstrated is a transformative 3D conformal aerosol jet printing and rapid photonic sintering process to print and sinter solution‐processed Bi2Te2.7Se0.3nanoplate inks onto virtually any flexible substrates. Within seconds of photonic sintering, the electrical conductivity of the printed film is dramatically improved from nonconductive to 2.7 × 104S m−1. The films demonstrate a room temperature power factor of 730 µW m−1K−2, which is among the highest values reported in flexible TE films. Additionally, the film shows negligible performance changes after 500 bending cycles. The highly scalable and low‐cost fabrication process paves the way for large‐scale manufacturing of flexible devices using a variety of high‐performing nanoparticle inks.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    2D materials have been of considerable interest as new materials for device applications. Non‐volatile resistive switching applications of MoS2and WS2have been previously demonstrated; however, these applications are dramatically limited by high temperatures and extended times needed for the large‐area synthesis of 2D materials on crystalline substrates. The experimental results demonstrate a one‐step sulfurization method to synthesize MoS2and WS2at 550 °C in 15 min on sapphire wafers. Furthermore, a large area transfer of the synthesized thin films to SiO2/Si substrates is achieved. Following this, MoS2and WS2memristors are fabricated that exhibit stable non‐volatile switching and a satisfactory large on/off current ratio (103–105) with good uniformity. Tuning the sulfurization parameters (temperature and metal precursor thickness) is found to be a straightforward and effective strategy to improve the performance of the memristors. The demonstration of large‐scale MoS2and WS2memristors with a one‐step low‐temperature sulfurization method with simple strategy to tuning can lead to potential applications such as flexible memory and neuromorphic computing.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Recent advances in device design and process optimizations have enabled the production of CdTe devices on flexible substrates, but the necessary high‐temperature processing (>450 °C) to recrystallize grains limits the use of alternative lightweight substrates. Here, a new synthesis method is reported to create a freestanding CdS/CdTe film by combining high‐temperature depositions (CdS/CdTe on Si/SiO2) and a simple lift‐off process in a water environment at room temperature. Analysis of the results indicate that the delamination is facilitated by the innate lattice mismatch as well as the presence of an unexpected Te‐rich layer (≈20 nm), which accumulates on the SiO2surface. High‐resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy measurements confirm that the CdS/CdTe film is physically liberated from the substrate without leaving any residue, while also preserving their initial structural and compositional properties.

    more » « less