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Title: Adsorption of Xyloglucan onto Thin Films of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Amorphous Cellulose: Film Thickness Effects
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Chemical Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
ACS Omega
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 14004-14012
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Endosidin20 (ES20) is a recently identified cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI) that targets the catalytic site of plant cellulose synthase (CESA). Here, we screened over 600 ES20 analogs and identified nine active analogs named ES20‐1 to ES20‐9. Among these, endosidin20‐1 (ES20‐1) had stronger inhibitory effects on plant growth and cellulose biosynthesis than ES20. At the biochemical level, we demonstrated that ES20‐1, like ES20, directly interacts with CESA6. At the cellular level, this molecule, like ES20, induced the accumulation of cellulose synthase complexes at the Golgi apparatus and inhibited their secretion to the plasma membrane. Like ES20, ES20‐1 likely targets the catalytic site of CESA. However, through molecular docking analysis using a modeled structure of full‐length CESA6, we found that both ES20 and ES20‐1 might have another target site at the transmembrane regions of CESA6. Besides ES20, other CBIs such as isoxaben, C17, and flupoxam are widely used tools to dissect the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis and are also valuable resources for the development of herbicides. Here, based on mutant genetic analysis and molecular docking analysis, we have identified the potential target sites of these CBIs on a modeled CESA structure. Some bacteria also produce cellulose, and both ES20 and ES20‐1 inhibited bacterial cellulose biosynthesis. Therefore, we conclude that ES20‐1 is a more potent analog of ES20 that inhibits intrinsic cellulose biosynthesis in plants, and both ES20 and ES20‐1 show an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and cellulose synthesis, making them excellent tools for exploring the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis across kingdoms.

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