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Title: Magnetic Field Uniformity Across the GF 9-2 YSO, L1082C Dense Core, and GF 9 Filamentary Dark Cloud
The orientation of the magnetic field (B field) in the filamentary dark cloud GF 9 was traced from the periphery of the cloud into the L1082C dense core that contains the low-mass, low-luminosity Class 0 young stellar object (YSO) GF 9-2 (IRAS 20503+6006). This was done using SOFIA HAWC+ dust thermal emission polarimetry (TEP) at 216 μm in combination with Mimir near-infrared background starlight polarimetry (BSP) conducted in the H band (1.6 μm) and K band (2.2 μm). These observations were augmented with published I-band (0.77 μm) BSP and Planck 850 μm TEP to probe B-field orientations with offset from the YSO in a range spanning 6000 au to 3 pc. No strong B-field orientation change with offset was found, indicating remarkable uniformity of the B-field from the cloud edge to the YSO environs. This finding disagrees with weak-field models of cloud core and YSO formation. The continuity of inferred B-field orientations for both TEP and BSP probes is strong evidence that both are sampling a common B field that uniformly threads the cloud, core, and YSO region. Bayesian analysis of Gaia DR2 stars matched to the Mimir BSP stars finds a distance to GF 9 of 270 ± 10 more » pc. No strong wavelength dependence of B-field orientation angle was found, contrary to previous claims. « less
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1814531 1412269
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The Astrophysical journal
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Wide-field near-infrared (NIR) polarimetry was used to examine disk systems around two brown dwarfs (BDs) and two young stellar objects (YSOs) embedded in the Heiles Cloud 2 (HCl2) dark molecular cloud in Taurus as well as numerous stars located behind HCl2. Inclined disks exhibit intrinsic NIR polarization due to scattering of photospheric light, which is detectable even for unresolved systems. After removing polarization contributions from magnetically aligned dust in HCl2 determined from the background star information, significant intrinsic polarization was detected from the disk systems of one BD (ITG 17) and both YSOs (ITG 15, ITG 25), but not from the other BD (2M0444). The ITG 17 BD shows good agreement of the disk orientation inferred from the NIR and from published Atacama Large Millimeter/submillieter Array dust continuum imaging. ITG 17 was also found to reside in a 5200 au wide binary (or hierarchical quad star system) with the ITG 15 YSO disk system. The inferred disk orientations from the NIR for ITG 15 and ITG 17 are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the local magnetic field direction. The multiplicity of the system and the large BD disk nature could have resulted from formation in an environmentmore »characterized by misalignment of the magnetic field and the protostellar disks.

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  2. Context. LDN 1157 is one of several clouds that are situated in the cloud complex LDN 1147/1158. The cloud presents a coma-shaped morphology with a well-collimated bipolar outflow emanating from a Class 0 protostar, LDN 1157-mm, that resides deep inside the cloud. Aims. The main goals of this work are (a) mapping the intercloud magnetic field (ICMF) geometry of the region surrounding LDN 1157 to investigate its relationship with the cloud morphology, outflow direction, and core magnetic field (CMF) geometry inferred from the millimeter- and submillimeter polarization results from the literature, and (b) to investigate the kinematic structure of the cloud. Methods. We carried out optical ( R -band) polarization observations of the stars projected on the cloud to map the parsec-scale magnetic field geometry. We made spectroscopic observations of the entire cloud in the 12 CO, C 18 O, and N 2 H + ( J = 1–0) lines to investigate its kinematic structure. Results. We obtained a distance of 340 ± 3 pc to the LDN 1147/1158, complex based on the Gaia DR2 parallaxes and proper motion values of the three young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the complex. A single filament of ~1.2 pc in length (tracedmore »by the Filfinder algorithm) and ~0.09 pc in width (estimated using the Radfil algorithm) is found to run throughout the coma-shaped cloud. Based on the relationships between the ICMF, CMF, filament orientations, outflow direction, and the hourglass morphology of the magnetic field, it is likely that the magnetic field played an important role in the star formation process in LDN 1157. LDN 1157-mm is embedded in one of the two high-density peaks detected using the Clumpfind algorithm. The two detected clumps lie on the filament and show a blue-red asymmetry in the 12 CO line. The C 18 O emission is well correlated with the filament and presents a coherent structure in velocity space. Combining the proper motions of the YSOs and the radial velocity of LDN 1147/1158 and an another complex, LDN 1172/1174, that is situated ~2° east of it, we found that the two complexes are moving collectively toward the Galactic plane. The filamentary morphology of the east-west segment of LDN 1157 may have formed as a result of mass lost by ablation through interaction of the moving cloud with the ambient interstellar medium.« less
  3. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less

    To unravel the star formation process, we present a multi-scale and multi-wavelength study of the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G333.73 + 0.37, which hosts previously known two H ii regions located at its center. Each H ii region is associated with a mid-infrared source, and is excited by a massive OB star. Two filamentary structures and a hub-filament system (HFS) associated with one H ii region are investigated in absorption using the Spitzer 8.0 μm image. The 13CO(J = 2–1) and C18O(J = 2–1) line data reveal two velocity components (around −35.5 and −33.5 km s−1) toward the IRDC, favouring the presence of two filamentary clouds at different velocities. Non-thermal (or turbulent) motions are depicted in the IRDC using the C18O line data. The spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) identified using the VVV near-infrared data traces star formation activities in the IRDC. Low-mass cores are identified toward both the H ii regions using the ALMA 1.38 mm continuum map. The VLT/NACO adaptive-optics L′-band images show the presence of at least three point-like sources and the absence of small-scale features in the inner 4000 AU around YSOs NIR31 and MIR 16 located toward the H ii regions. The H ii regions and groups of YSO are observed toward the centralmore »part of the IRDC, where the two filamentary clouds intersect. A scenario of cloud–cloud collision or converging flows in the IRDC seems to be applicable, which may explain star formation activities including HFS and massive stars.

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  5. ABSTRACT The role played by magnetic field during star formation is an important topic in astrophysics. We investigate the correlation between the orientation of star-forming cores (as defined by the core major axes) and ambient magnetic field directions in (i) a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation, (ii) synthetic observations generated from the simulation at different viewing angles, and (iii) observations of nearby molecular clouds. We find that the results on relative alignment between cores and background magnetic field in synthetic observations slightly disagree with those measured in fully 3D simulation data, which is partly because cores identified in projected 2D maps tend to coexist within filamentary structures, while 3D cores are generally more rounded. In addition, we examine the progression of magnetic field from pc to core scale in the simulation, which is consistent with the anisotropic core formation model that gas preferably flows along the magnetic field towards dense cores. When comparing the observed cores identified from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and Planck polarization-inferred magnetic field orientations, we find that the relative core–field alignment has a regional dependence among different clouds. More specifically, we find that dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud tend to align perpendicular to the backgroundmore »magnetic field, while those in Perseus and Ophiuchus tend to have random (Perseus) or slightly parallel (Ophiuchus) orientations with respect to the field. We argue that this feature of relative core–field orientation could be used to probe the relative significance of the magnetic field within the cloud.« less