CRISPR-Cas systems are found widely in prokaryotes, where they provide adaptive immunity against virus infection and plasmid transformation. We describe a minimal functional CRISPR-Cas system, comprising a single ~70-kilodalton protein, CasΦ, and a CRISPR array, encoded exclusively in the genomes of huge bacteriophages. CasΦ uses a single active site for both CRISPR RNA (crRNA) processing and crRNA-guided DNA cutting to target foreign nucleic acids. This hypercompact system is active in vitro and in human and plant cells with expanded target recognition capabilities relative to other CRISPR-Cas proteins. Useful for genome editing and DNA detection but with a molecular weight half that of Cas9 and Cas12a genome-editing enzymes, CasΦ offers advantages for cellular delivery that expand the genome editing toolbox.
CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity to infectious nucleic acids and are widely employed as genome editing tools. These tools use RNA-guided Cas proteins whose large size (950 to 1400 amino acids) has been considered essential to their specific DNA- or RNA-targeting activities. Here we present a set of CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated archaea that contain Cas14, a family of exceptionally compact RNA-guided nucleases (400 to 700 amino acids). Despite their small size, Cas14 proteins are capable of targeted single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) cleavage without restrictive sequence requirements. Moreover, target recognition by Cas14 triggers nonspecific cutting of ssDNA molecules, an activity that enables high-fidelity single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping (Cas14-DETECTR). Metagenomic data show that multiple CRISPR-Cas14 systems evolved independently and suggest a potential evolutionary origin of single-effector CRISPR-based adaptive immunity.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 839-842
- American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
CRISPR-Cas12a is an RNA-guided, programmable genome editing enzyme found within bacterial adaptive immune pathways. Unlike CRISPR-Cas9, Cas12a uses only a single catalytic site to both cleave target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) (cis-activity) and indiscriminately degrade single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (trans-activity). To investigate how the relative potency of cis- versus trans-DNase activity affects Cas12a-mediated genome editing, we first used structure-guided engineering to generate variants of Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cas12a that selectively disrupt trans-activity. The resulting engineered mutant with the biggest differential between cis- and trans-DNase activity in vitro showed minimal genome editing activity in human cells, motivating a second set of experiments using directed evolution to generate additional mutants with robust genome editing activity. Notably, these engineered and evolved mutants had enhanced ability to induce homology-directed repair (HDR) editing by 2–18-fold compared to wild-type Cas12a when using HDR donors containing mismatches with crRNA at the PAM-distal region. Finally, a site-specific reversion mutation produced improved Cas12a (iCas12a) variants with superior genome editing efficiency at genomic sites that are difficult to edit using wild-type Cas12a. This strategy establishes a pipeline for creating improved genome editing tools by combining structural insights with randomization and selection. The available structures of other CRISPR-Cas enzymes will enable this strategymore »
Inhibition mechanisms of AcrF9, AcrF8, and AcrF6 against type I-F CRISPR–Cas complex revealed by cryo-EMProkaryotes and viruses have fought a long battle against each other. Prokaryotes use CRISPR–Cas-mediated adaptive immunity, while conversely, viruses evolve multiple anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to defeat these CRISPR–Cas systems. The type I-F CRISPR–Cas system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the crRNA-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to recognize the invading DNA. Although some Acr proteins against the Csy complex have been reported, other relevant Acr proteins still need studies to understand their mechanisms. Here, we obtain three structures of previously unresolved Acr proteins (AcrF9, AcrF8, and AcrF6) bound to the Csy complex using electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), with resolution at 2.57 Å, 3.42 Å, and 3.15 Å, respectively. The 2.57-Å structure reveals fine details for each molecular component within the Csy complex as well as the direct and water-mediated interactions between proteins and CRISPR RNA (crRNA). Our structures also show unambiguously how these Acr proteins bind differently to the Csy complex. AcrF9 binds to key DNA-binding sites on the Csy spiral backbone. AcrF6 binds at the junction between Cas7.6f and Cas8f, which is critical for DNA duplex splitting. AcrF8 binds to a distinct position on the Csy spiral backbone and forms interactions with crRNA, which has not been seen in other Acr proteinsmore »
The CRISPR-Cas Mechanism for Adaptive Immunity and Alternate Bacterial Functions Fuels Diverse BiotechnologiesBacterial and archaeal CRISPR-Cas systems offer adaptive immune protection against foreign mobile genetic elements (MGEs). This function is regulated by sequence specific binding of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target DNA/RNA, with an additional requirement of a flanking DNA motif called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in certain CRISPR systems. In this review, we discuss how the same fundamental mechanism of RNA-DNA and/or RNA-RNA complementarity is utilized by bacteria to regulate two distinct functions: to ward off intruding genetic materials and to modulate diverse physiological functions. The best documented examples of alternate functions are bacterial virulence, biofilm formation, adherence, programmed cell death, and quorum sensing. While extensive complementarity between the crRNA and the targeted DNA and/or RNA seems to constitute an efficient phage protection system, partial complementarity seems to be the key for several of the characterized alternate functions. Cas proteins are also involved in sequence-specific and non-specific RNA cleavage and control of transcriptional regulator expression, the mechanisms of which are still elusive. Over the past decade, the mechanisms of RNA-guided targeting and auxiliary functions of several Cas proteins have been transformed into powerful gene editing and biotechnological tools. We provide a synopsis of CRISPR technologies in this review. Even withmore »
CRISPR-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea, beginning with integration of foreign sequences into the host CRISPR genomic locus and followed by transcription and maturation of CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). In some CRISPR systems, a reverse transcriptase (RT) fusion to the Cas1 integrase and Cas6 maturase creates a single protein that enables concerted sequence integration and crRNA production. To elucidate how the RT-integrase organizes distinct enzymatic activities, we present the cryo-EM structure of a Cas6-RT-Cas1—Cas2 CRISPR integrase complex. The structure reveals a heterohexamer in which the RT directly contacts the integrase and maturase domains, suggesting functional coordination between all three active sites. Together with biochemical experiments, our data support a model of sequential enzymatic activities that enable CRISPR sequence acquisition from RNA and DNA substrates. These findings highlight an expanded capacity of some CRISPR systems to acquire diverse sequences that direct CRISPR-mediated interference.