skip to main content

Title: In-situ determination of the HfO2 -Ta2O5 -temperature phase diagram up to 3000°C
The previously unknown experimental HfO2–Ta2O5‐temperature phase diagram has been elucidated up to 3000°C using a quadrupole lamp furnace and conical nozzle levitator system equipped with a CO2 laser, in conjunction with synchrotron X‐ray diffraction. These in‐situ techniques allowed the determination of the following: (a) liquidus, solidus, and invariant transformation temperatures as a function of composition from thermal arrest experiments, (b) determination of equilibrium phases through testing of reversibility via in‐situ X‐ray diffraction, and (c) molar volume measurements as a function of temperature for equilibrium phases. From these, an experimental HfO2–Ta2O5‐temperature phase diagram has been constructed which is consistent with the Gibbs Phase Rule.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1835848
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10084215
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
ISSN:
1551-2916
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Hypothetical half-Heusler (HH) ternary alloy of CoVSn has already been computationally investigated for possible spintronics and thermoelectric applications. We report the experimental realization of this compound and the characterizations of its thermoelectric properties. The material was synthesized by a solid-state reaction of the stoichiometric amounts of the elements via powder metallurgy (30 h mechanical milling and annealing at 900 °C for 20 h) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The temperature-dependent ternary thermodynamic phase diagram of Co-V-Sn was further calculated. The phase diagram and detailed analysis of the synthesized material revealed the formation of the non-stoichiometry HH CoVSn, mixed with the binary intermetallic phases of SnV3, Co2Sn, and Co3V. The combination of X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermoelectric transport properties confirmed the formation of a multi-phase compound. The analysis revealed the predicted thermoelectric features (zT = 0.53) of the highly doped CoVSn to be compromised by the formation of intermetallic phases (zT ≈ 0.007) during synthesis. The additional phases changed the properties from p- to overall n-type thermoelectric characteristics.
  2. The diffusion behavior and phase equilibria in the Cu-Zn binary system were investigated using solid-solid and solid-liquid diffusion couples. Heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 100 to 750 °C were performed and the samples were examined using optical microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis to identify the phases and to obtain composition profiles. Solubility limits of both solid solution and intermetallic phases were then evaluated, and a forward-simulation analysis (FSA) was applied to extract interdiffusion coefficients. The composition profiles from Hoxha et al. were also re-analyzed using FSA to obtain more reliable diffusion coefficient data without the assumption of constant diffusion coefficients for the intermetallic phases. A comprehensive assessment of the interdiffusion coefficients in three intermetallic phases of the Cu-Zn system was performed based on the results from the current study as well as those in the literature. Activation energies and Arrhenius pre-factors were evaluated for each phase as a function of composition. The fitted equations based on the comprehensive assessment have the capabilities of computing the interdiffusion coefficients of each of the phase at a given composition and temperature. Suggested modifications to the Cu-Zn binary phase diagram were presented based on the new experimental information gatheredmore »from the present study. A clear explanation is provided for the puzzling low Zn concentrations often observed in the Cu-rich fcc phase of Cu-Zn diffusion couples in comparison with the expected high solubility values based on the equilibrium Cu-Zn phase diagram.« less
  3. Many functional materials have relatively low decomposition temperatures ( T ≤ 400 °C), which makes their synthesis challenging using conventional high-temperature solid-state chemistry. Therefore, non-conventional techniques such as metathesis, hydrothermal, and solution chemistry are often employed to access low-temperature phases; the discovery of new chemistries is needed to expand access to these phases. This contribution discusses the use of triphenylphosphine (PPh 3 ) as a molten flux to synthesize superconducting iron selenide (Fe 1+δ Se) at low temperature ( T = 325 °C). Powder X-ray diffraction and magnetism measurements confirm the successful formation of superconducting iron selenide while nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction show that the formation of superconducting FeSe at low temperatures is enabled by an adduct between the triphenylphosphine and selenium. Exploration of the Fe–Se–PPh 3 phase space indicates that the PPh 3 –Se adduct effectively reduces the chemical potential of the selenium at high concentrations of triphenylphosphine. This contribution demonstrates that the use of a poorly-solvating yet reactive flux has the potential to enable the synthesis of new low-temperature phases of solid materials.
  4. We report the growth of nanoscale hafnium dioxide (HfO2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thin films using remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD), and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Tetrakis (dimethylamino) hafnium (Hf[N(CH3)2]4) and tetrakis (dimethylamino) zirconium (IV) (Zr[N(CH3)2]4) were used as the precursors, while O2 gas was used as the reactive gas. The PE-ALD-grown HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XPS measurements show that the ZrO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 34% Zr, 2% C, and 64% O while the HfO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 29% Hf, 11% C, and 60% O. The HRTEM and XRD measurements show both HfO2 and ZrO2 films have polycrystalline structures. n-channel and p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (nFETs and pFETs), CMOS inverters, and CMOS ring oscillators were fabricated to test the quality of the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Current-voltage (IV) curves, transfer characteristics, and oscillation waveforms were measured from the fabricated transistors, inverters, and oscillators, respectively. The experimental results measured from the HfO2 and ZrO2more »thin films were compared.« less
  5. The first in situ quantitative synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of plastic strain-induced phase transformation (PT) has been performed on $\alpha-\omega$ PT in ultra-pure, strongly plastically predeformed Zr as an example, under different compression-shear pathways in rotational diamond anvil cell (RDAC). Radial distributions of pressure in each phase and in the mixture, and concentration of $\omega$-Zr, all averaged over the sample thickness, as well as thickness profile were measured. The minimum pressure for the strain-induced $\alpha-\omega$ PT, $p^d_{\varepsilon}$=1.2 GPa, is smaller than under hydrostatic loading by a factor of 4.5 and smaller than the phase equilibrium pressure by a factor of 3; it is independent of the compression-shear straining path. The theoretically predicted plastic strain-controlled kinetic equation was verified and quantified; it is independent of the pressure-plastic strain loading path and plastic deformation at pressures below $p^d_{\varepsilon}$. Thus, strain-induced PTs under compression in DAC and torsion in RDAC do not fundamentally differ. The yield strength of both phases is estimated using hardness and x-ray peak broadening; the yield strength in shear is not reached by the contact friction stress and cannot be evaluated using the pressure gradient. Obtained results open a new opportunity for quantitative study of strain-induced PTs andmore »reactions with applications to material synthesis and processing, mechanochemistry, and geophysics.« less