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Title: LC/MS at the whole protein level: Studies of biomolecular structure and interactions using native LC/MS and cross-path reactive chromatography (XP-RC) MS
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; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
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Page Range / eLocation ID:
14 to 26
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Proteoforms, the different forms of a protein with sequence variations including post-translational modifications (PTMs), execute vital functions in biological systems, such as cell signaling and epigenetic regulation. Advances in top-down mass spectrometry (MS) technology have permitted the direct characterization of intact proteoforms and their exact number of modification sites, allowing for the relative quantification of positional isomers (PI). Protein positional isomers refer to a set of proteoforms with identical total mass and set of modifications, but varying PTM site combinations. The relative abundance of PI can be estimated by matching proteoform-specific fragment ions to top-down tandem MS (MS2) data to localize and quantify modifications. However, the current approaches heavily rely on manual annotation. Here, we present IsoForma, an open-source R package for the relative quantification of PI within a single tool. Benchmarking IsoForma's performance against two existing workflows produced comparable results and improvements in speed. Overall, IsoForma provides a streamlined process for quantifying PI, reduces the analysis time, and offers an essential framework for developing customized proteoform analysis workflows. The software is open source and available at 
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