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- CVPR Workshop - Mutual Benefits of Cognitive and Computer Vision
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- National Science Foundation
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The prediction of human shifts of attention is a widely-studied question in both behavioral and computer vision, especially in the context of a free viewing task. However, search behavior, where the fixation scanpaths are highly dependent on the viewer’s goals, has received far less attention, even though visual search constitutes much of a person’s everyday behavior. One reason for this is the absence of real-world image datasets on which search models can be trained. In this paper we present a carefully created dataset for two target categories, microwaves and clocks, curated from the COCO2014 dataset. A total of 2183 images were presented to multiple participants, who were tasked to search for one of the two categories. This yields a total of 16184 validated fixations used for training, making our microwave-clock dataset currently one of the largest datasets of eye fixations in categorical search. We also present a 40-image testing dataset, where images depict both a microwave and a clock target. Distinct fixation patterns emerged depending on whether participants searched for a microwave (n=30) or a clock (n=30) in the same images, meaning that models need to predict different search scanpaths from the same pixel inputs. We report the results ofmore »
Human gaze behavior prediction is important for behavioral vision and for computer vision applications. Most models mainly focus on predicting free-viewing behavior using saliency maps, but do not generalize to goal-directed behavior, such as when a person searches for a visual target object. We propose the first inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) model to learn the internal reward function and policy used by humans during visual search. We modeled the viewer’s internal belief states as dynamic contextual belief maps of object locations. These maps were learned and then used to predict behavioral scanpaths for multiple target categories. To train and evaluate our IRL model we created COCO-Search18, which is now the largest dataset of highquality search fixations in existence. COCO-Search18 has 10 participants searching for each of 18 target-object categories in 6202 images, making about 300,000 goal-directed fixations. When trained and evaluated on COCO-Search18, the IRL model outperformed baseline models in predicting search fixation scanpaths, both in terms of similarity to human search behavior and search efficiency. Finally, reward maps recovered by the IRL model reveal distinctive targetdependent patterns of object prioritization, which we interpret as a learned object context.
Attention control is a basic behavioral process that has been studied for decades. The currently best models of attention control are deep networks trained on free-viewing behavior to predict bottom-up attention control – saliency. We introduce COCO-Search18, the first dataset of laboratory-quality
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Human efficiency in finding a target in an image has attracted the attention of machine learning researchers, but what about when no target is there? Knowing how people search in the absence of a target, and when they stop, is important for Human-computer-interaction systems attempting to predict human gaze behavior in the wild. Here we report a rigorous evaluation of target-absent search behavior using the COCO-Search18 dataset to train stateof- the-art models. We focus on two specific aims. First, we characterize the presence of a target guidance signal in target-absent search behavior by comparing it to targetpresent guidance and free viewing. We do this by comparing how well a model trained on one type of fixation behavior (target-present, target-absent, free viewing) can predict behavior in either the same or different task. To compare target-absent search to free viewing behavior we created COCO-FreeView, a dataset of free-viewing fixations for the same images used in COCO-Search18. These comparisons revealed the existence of a target guidance signal in targetabsent search, albeit one much less dominant compared to when a target actually appeared in an image, and that the target-absent guidance signal was similar to free viewing in that saliency and center bias weremore »
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