- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (ETRA '18)
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 9
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract The enhancement hypothesis suggests that deaf individuals are more vigilant to visual emotional cues than hearing individuals. The present eye-tracking study examined ambient–focal visual attention when encoding affect from dynamically changing emotional facial expressions. Deaf (n = 17) and hearing (n = 17) individuals watched emotional facial expressions that in 10-s animations morphed from a neutral expression to one of happiness, sadness, or anger. The task was to recognize emotion as quickly as possible. Deaf participants tended to be faster than hearing participants in affect recognition, but the groups did not differ in accuracy. In general, happy faces were more accurately and more quickly recognized than faces expressing anger or sadness. Both groups demonstrated longer average fixation duration when recognizing happiness in comparison to anger and sadness. Deaf individuals directed their first fixations less often to the mouth region than the hearing group. During the last stages of emotion recognition, deaf participants exhibited more focal viewing of happy faces than negative faces. This pattern was not observed among hearing individuals. The analysis of visual gaze dynamics, switching between ambient and focal attention, was useful in studying the depth of cognitive processing of emotional information among deaf and hearing individuals.
The overall goal of our research is to develop a system of intelligent multimodal affective pedagogical agents that are effective for different types of learners (Adamo et al., 2021). While most of the research on pedagogical agents tends to focus on the cognitive aspects of online learning and instruction, this project explores the less-studied role of affective (or emotional) factors. We aim to design believable animated agents that can convey realistic, natural emotions through speech, facial expressions, and body gestures and that can react to the students’ detected emotional states with emotional intelligence. Within the context of this goal, the specific objective of the work reported in the paper was to examine the extent to which the agents’ facial micro-expressions affect students’ perception of the agents’ emotions and their naturalness. Micro-expressions are very brief facial expressions that occur when a person either deliberately or unconsciously conceals an emotion being felt (Ekman &Friesen, 1969). Our assumption is that if the animated agents display facial micro expressions in addition to macro expressions, they will convey higher expressive richness and naturalness to the viewer, as “the agents can possess two emotional streams, one based on interaction with the viewer and the other basedmore »
Automated Pitch Convergence Improves Learning in a Social, Teachable Robot for Middle School MathematicsPedagogical agents have the potential to provide not only cognitive support to learners but socio-emotional support through social behavior. Socioemotional support can be a critical element to a learner’s success, influencing their self-efficacy and motivation. Several social behaviors have been explored with pedagogical agents including facial expressions, movement, and social dialogue; social dialogue has especially been shown to positively influence interactions. In this work, we explore the role of paraverbal social behavior or social behavior in the form of paraverbal cues such as tone of voice and intensity. To do this, we focus on the phenomenon of entrainment, where individuals adapt their paraverbal features of speech to one another. Paraverbal entrainment in human-human studies has been found to be correlated with rapport and learning. In a study with 72 middle school students, we evaluate the effects of entrainment with a teachable robot, a pedagogical agent that learners teach how to solve ratio problems. We explore how a teachable robot which entrains and introduces social dialogue influences rapport and learning; we compare with two baseline conditions: a social condition, in which the robot speaks socially, and a non-social condition, in which the robot neither entrains nor speaks socially. We find thatmore »
Pupillary and microsaccadic responses to cognitive effort and emotional arousal during complex decision makingA large body of literature documents the sensitivity of pupil response to cognitive load (e.g., Krejtz et al. 2018) and emotional arousal (Bradley et al., 2008). Recent empirical evidence also showed that microsaccade characteristics and dynamics can be modulated by mental fatigue and cognitive load (e.g., Dalmaso et al. 2017). Very little is known about the sensitivity of microsaccadic characteristics to emotional arousal. The present paper demonstrates in a controlled experiment pupillary and microsaccadic responses to information processing during multi-attribute decision making under affective priming. Twenty-one psychology students were randomly assigned into three affective priming conditions (neutral, aversive, and erotic). Participants were tasked to make several discriminative decisions based on acquired cues. In line with the expectations, results showed microsaccadic rate inhibition and pupillary dilation depending on cognitive effort (number of acquired cues) prior to decision. These effects were moderated by affective priming. Aversive priming strengthened pupillary and microsaccadic response to information processing effort. In general, results suggest that pupillary response is more biased by affective priming than microsaccadic rate. The results are discussed in the light of neuropsychological mechanisms of pupillary and microsaccadic behavior generation.
SPIDERS: Low-Cost Wireless Glasses for Continuous In-Situ Bio-Signal Acquisition and Emotion RecognitionWe present a System for Processing In-situ Bio-signal Data for Emotion Recognition and Sensing (SPIDERS)- a low-cost, wireless, glasses-based platform for continuous in-situ monitoring of user's facial expressions (apparent emotions) and real emotions. We present algorithms to provide four core functions (eye shape and eyebrow movements, pupillometry, zygomaticus muscle movements, and head movements), using the bio-signals acquired from three non-contact sensors (IR camera, proximity sensor, IMU). SPIDERS distinguishes between different classes of apparent and real emotion states based on the aforementioned four bio-signals. We prototype advanced functionalities including facial expression detection and real emotion classification with a landmarks and optical flow based facial expression detector that leverages changes in a user's eyebrows and eye shapes to achieve up to 83.87% accuracy, as well as a pupillometry-based real emotion classifier with higher accuracy than other low-cost wearable platforms that use sensors requiring skin contact. SPIDERS costs less than $20 to assemble and can continuously run for up to 9 hours before recharging. We demonstrate that SPIDERS is a truly wireless and portable platform that has the capability to impact a wide range of applications, where knowledge of the user's emotional state is critical.