skip to main content

Title: Designing crystalline, flexible covalent metal–organic networks through controlled ligand deprotection
A strategy to generate crystalline coordination polymers with strong, covalent metal-linker bonds is presented. 1,6-Pyrenedi(2-ethylhexylmercaptopropionate) ( 1 ) is converted to 1,6-pyrenedithiolate (PDT) via a base-mediated deprotection allowing for rate control of the metal-linker self assembly. This leads to the formation of a single-crystalline, flexible 2D coordination polymer, [Cd(PDT) 2 ][Cd(en) 3 ] ( 3 ).
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
4255 to 4257
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Conserved homology 1 (C1) domains are peripheral zinc finger domains that are responsible for recruiting their host signaling proteins, including Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes, to diacylglycerol-containing lipid membranes. In this work, we investigated the reactivity of the C1 structural zinc sites, using the cysteine-rich C1B regulatory region of the PKCα isoform as a paradigm. The choice of Cd 2+ as a probe was prompted by previous findings that xenobiotic metal ions modulate PKC activity. Using solution NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, we found that Cd 2+ spontaneously replaced Zn 2+ in both structural sites of the C1B domain, with themore »formation of all-Cd and mixed Zn/Cd protein species. The Cd 2+ substitution for Zn 2+ preserved the C1B fold and function, as probed by its ability to interact with a potent tumor-promoting agent. Both Cys 3 His metal-ion sites of C1B have higher affinity to Cd 2+ than Zn 2+ , but are thermodynamically and kinetically inequivalent with respect to the metal ion replacement, despite the identical coordination spheres. We find that even in the presence of the oxygen-rich sites presented by the neighboring peripheral membrane-binding C2 domain, the thiol-rich sites can successfully compete for the available Cd 2+ . Our results indicate that Cd 2+ can target the entire membrane-binding regulatory region of PKCs, and that the competition between the thiol- and oxygen-rich sites will likely determine the activation pattern of PKCs.« less
  2. Photocatalysis is an attractive, sustainable, and potentially low-cost route to capture solar energy as fuel. However, current photocatalytic materials synthesis routes are not easily scaled-up to the magnitude required to impact our energy consumption due to both economic and environmental concerns. While the elements utilized are often earth abundant, typical synthetic routes utilize organic solvents at elevated temperatures with relatively expensive precursors. Herein, we demonstrate the fully biomineralized synthesis of a quantum confined CdS/reduced graphene oxide (CdS/rGO) photocatalyst catalyzed by the single enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). The synthesis is performed at pH 9 in a buffered aqueous solution, under ambientmore »conditions, and utilizes the low-cost precursors Cd acetate, l -cysteine, graphene oxide, and a poly- l -lysine linker molecule. CSE actively decomposes l -cysteine to generate reactive HS − in aqueous solution at pH 9. Careful selection and control of the synthesis conditions enable both reduction of graphene oxide to rGO, and control over the mean CdS nanocrystal size. The CdS is conjugated to the rGO via a poly- l -lysine crosslinker molecule introduced during rGO formation. The completed CdS/rGO photocatalyst is capable of producing H 2 , without the aid of a noble metal co-catalyst, at a rate of 550 μmol h −1 g −1 for an optimized CdS/rGO ratio. This rate is double that measured for unsupported CdS and is comparable to CdS/rGO photocatalysts produced using more typical chemical synthesis routes. Single enzyme biomineralization by CSE can produce a range of metal chalcogenides without altering the enzyme or benign approach, making this an easily adaptable procedure for the sustainable production of a wide variety of important photocatalyst systems.« less
  3. Metal-mediated cross-coupling reactions offer organic chemists a wide array of stereo- and chemically-selective reactions with broad applications in fine chemical and pharmaceutical synthesis.1 Current batch-based synthesis methods are beginning to be replaced with flow chemistry strategies to take advantage of the improved consistency and process control methods offered by continuous flow systems.2,3 Most cross-coupling chemistries still encounter several issues in flow using homogeneous catalysis, including expensive catalyst recovery and air sensitivity due to the chemical nature of the catalyst ligands.1 To mitigate some of these issues, a ligand-free heterogeneous catalysis reaction was developed using palladium (Pd) loaded into a polymericmore »network of a silicone elastomer, poly(hydromethylsiloxane) (PHMS), that is not air sensitive and can be used with mild reaction solvents (ethanol and water).4 In this work we present a novel method of producing soft catalytic microparticles using a multiphase flow-focusing microreactor and demonstrate their application for continuous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. The catalytic microparticles are produced in a coaxial glass capillary-based 3D flow-focusing microreactor. The microreactor consists of two precursors, a cross-linking catalyst in toluene and a mixture of the PHMS polymer and a divinyl cross-linker. The dispersed phase containing the polymer, cross-linker, and cross-linking catalyst is continuously mixed and then formed into microdroplets by the continuous phase of water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) introduced in a counter-flow configuration. Elastomeric microdroplets with a diameter ranging between 50 to 300 micron are produced at 25 to 250 Hz with a size polydispersity less than 3% in single stream production. The physicochemical properties of the elastomeric microparticles such as particle swelling/softness can be tuned using the ratio of cross-linker to polymer as well as the ratio of polymer mixture to solvent during the particle formation. Swelling in toluene can be tuned up to 400% of the initial particle volume by reducing the concentration of cross-linker in the mixture and increasing the ratio of polymer to solvent during production.5 After the particles are produced and collected, they are transferred into toluene containing palladium acetate, allowing the particles to incorporate the palladium into the polymer network and then reduce the palladium to Pd0 with the Si-H functionality present on the PHMS backbones. After the reduction, the Pd-loaded particles can be washed and dried for storage or switched into an ethanol/water solution for loading into a micro-packed bed reactor (µ-PBR) for continuous organic synthesis. The in-situ reduction of Pd within the PHMS microparticles was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and focused ion beam-SEM, and TEM techniques. In the next step, we used the developed µ-PBR to conduct continuous organic synthesis of 4-phenyltoluene by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 4-iodotoluene and phenylboronic acid using potassium carbonate as the base. Catalyst leaching was determined to only occur at sub ppm concentrations even at high solvent flow rates after 24 h of continuous run using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed µ-PBR using the elastomeric microparticles is an important initial step towards the development of highly-efficient and green continuous manufacturing technologies in the pharma industry. In addition, the developed elastomeric microparticle synthesis technique can be utilized for the development of a library of other chemically cross-linkable polymer/cross-linker pairs for applications in organic synthesis, targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, or biomedical imaging. References 1. Ruiz-Castillo P, Buchwald SL. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Cross-Coupling Reactions. Chem Rev. 2016;116(19):12564-12649. 2. Adamo A, Beingessner RL, Behnam M, et al. On-demand continuous-flow production of pharmaceuticals in a compact, reconfigurable system. Science. 2016;352(6281):61 LP-67. 3. Jensen KF. Flow Chemistry — Microreaction Technology Comes of Age. 2017;63(3). 4. Stibingerova I, Voltrova S, Kocova S, Lindale M, Srogl J. Modular Approach to Heterogenous Catalysis. Manipulation of Cross-Coupling Catalyst Activity. Org Lett. 2016;18(2):312-315. 5. Bennett JA, Kristof AJ, Vasudevan V, Genzer J, Srogl J, Abolhasani M. Microfluidic synthesis of elastomeric microparticles: A case study in catalysis of palladium-mediated cross-coupling. AIChE J. 2018;0(0):1-10.« less
  4. We report poly(isocyanide)-based random copolymers (co-PIC) featuring alkoxycarbonyl-based side-chains synthesized via the metal-catalyzed controlled polymerization of chiral and achiral isocyanide monomers. The pyridine-functionalized achiral monomer provides functional sites while the chiral monomer drives the formation of a one-handed preferred helix. The side-chain functionalized helical polymer undergoes self-assembly with palladated pincer ligands, as evidenced by 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirms that the side-chain self-assembly does not affect the backbone helicity. We construct supramolecular helical brush copolymers via the metal coordination of the co-PIC backbone with telechelic poly(styrene)s. 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies confirm the metal coordination,more »and CD measurements suggest that the backbone retains its helical conformation. Additionally, viscometry measurements verify the formation of high molecular weight polymers while dynamic light scattering confirms the increasing hydrodynamic radii of the resulting supramolecular brush copolymers. Our methodology constructs complex 3D materials with fully synthetic, secondary structure containing building blocks. We view this as a platform for building architecturally controlled 3D supramolecular materials with high degrees of complexity.« less
  5. Tuning the properties of atomic crystals in the two-dimensional (2D) limit is synthetically challenging, but critical to unlock their potential in fundamental research and nanotechnology alike. 2D crystals assembled using superatomic blocks could provide a route to encrypt desirable functionality, yet strategies to link the inorganic blocks together in predetermined dimensionality or symmetry are scarce. Here, we describe the synthesis of anisotropic van der Waals crystalline frameworks using the designer superatomic nanocluster Co 3 (py) 3 Co 6 Se 8 L 6 (py = pyridine, L = Ph 2 PN(Tol)), and ditopic linkers. Post-synthetically, the 3D crystals can be mechanicallymore »exfoliated into ultrathin flakes (8 to 60 nm), or intercalated with the redox-active guest tetracyanoethylene in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation. Extensive characterization, including by single crystal X-ray diffraction, reveals how intrinsic features of the nanocluster, such as its structure, chirality, redox-activity and magnetic profile, predetermine key properties of the emerging 2D structures. Within the nanosheets, the strict and unusual stereoselectivity of the nanocluster's Co edges for the low symmetry (α,α,β) isomer gives rise to in-plane structural anisotropy, while the helically chiral nanoclusters self-organize into alternating Δ- and Λ-homochiral rows. The nanocluster's high-spin Co edges, and its rich redox profile make the nanosheets both magnetically and electrochemically active, as revealed by solid state magnetic and cyclic voltammetry studies. The length and flexibility of the ditopic linker was varied, and found to have a secondary effect on the structure and stacking of the nanosheets within the 3D crystals. With these results we introduce a deterministic and versatile synthetic entry to programmable functionality and symmetry in 2D superatomic crystals.« less