- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Proc. SPIE 10883, Three- Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXVI, 108831A
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
A major benefit of fluorescence microscopy is the now plentiful selection of fluorescent markers. These labels can be chosen to serve complementary functions, such as tracking labeled subcellular molecules near demarcated organelles. However, with the standard 3 or 4 emission channels, multiple label detection is restricted to segregated regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, as in RGB coloring. Hyperspectral imaging allows the user to discern many fluorescence labels by their unique spectral properties, provided there is significant differentiation of their emission spectra. The cost of this technique is often an increase in gain or exposure time to accommodate the signal reduction from separating the signal into many discrete excitation or emission channels. Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have allowed the acquisition of more signal in a shorter time period by scanning the excitation spectra of fluorophores. Here, we explore the selection of optimal channels for both significant signal separation and sufficient signal detection using excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging. Excitation spectra were obtained using a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with a Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) Tunable filters had bandwidths between 13 and 17 nm. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths between 340 nm and 550 nm. Hyperspectral image stacks were generated and analyzed using ENVI and custom MATLAB scripts. Among channel consideration criteria were: number of channels, spectral range of scan, spacing of center wavelengths, and acquisition time.more » « less
Autofluorescence has historically been considered a nuisance in medical imaging. Many endogenous fluorophores, specifically, collagen, elastin, NADH, and FAD, are found throughout the human body. Diagnostically, these signals can be prohibitive since they can outcompete signals introduced for diagnostic purposes. Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have allowed the acquisition of significantly more data in a shorter time period by scanning the excitation spectra of fluorophores. The reduced acquisition time and increased signal-to-noise ratio allow for separation of significantly more fluorophores than previously possible. Here, we propose to utilize excitation-scanning of autofluorescence to examine tissues and diagnose pathologies. Spectra of autofluorescent molecules were obtained using a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with a Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 360 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. The resultant spectra were used to examine hyperspectral image stacks from various collaborative studies, including an atherosclerotic rat model and a colon cancer study. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with ENVI and custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and principal component analysis (PCA). Initial results suggest the ability to separate the signals of endogenous fluorophores and measure the relative concentrations of fluorophores among healthy and diseased states of similar tissues. These results suggest pathology-specific changes to endogenous fluorophores can be detected using excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging. Future work will expand the library of pure molecules and will examine more defined disease states.more » « less
Spectral imaging approaches provide new possibilities for measuring and discriminating fluorescent molecules in living cells and tissues. These approaches often employ tunable filters and robust image processing algorithms to identify many fluorescent labels in a single image set. Here, we present results from a novel spectral imaging technology that scans the fluorescence excitation spectrum, demonstrating that excitation‐scanning hyperspectral image data can discriminate among tissue types and estimate the molecular composition of tissues. This approach allows fast, accurate quantification of many fluorescent species from multivariate image data without the need of exogenous labels or dyes. We evaluated the ability of the excitation‐scanning approach to identify endogenous fluorescence signatures in multiple unlabeled tissue types. Signatures were screened using multi‐pass principal component analysis. Endmember extraction techniques revealed conserved autofluorescent signatures across multiple tissue types. We further examined the ability to detect known molecular signatures by constructing spectral libraries of common endogenous fluorophores and applying multiple spectral analysis techniques on test images from lung, liver and kidney. Spectral deconvolution revealed structure‐specific morphologic contrast generated from pure molecule signatures. These results demonstrate that excitation‐scanning spectral imaging, coupled with spectral imaging processing techniques, provides an approach for discriminating among tissue types and assessing the molecular composition of tissues. Additionally, excitation scanning offers the ability to rapidly screen molecular markers across a range of tissues without using fluorescent labels. This approach lays the groundwork for translation of excitation‐scanning technologies to clinical imaging platforms.
Spectroscopic image data has provided molecular discrimination for numerous fields including: remote sensing, food safety and biomedical imaging. Despite the various technologies for acquiring spectral data, there remains a trade-off when acquiring data. Typically, spectral imaging either requires long acquisition times to collect an image stack with high spectral specificity or acquisition times are shortened at the expense of fewer spectral bands or reduced spatial sampling. Hence, new spectral imaging microscope platforms are needed to help mitigate these limitations. Fluorescence excitation-scanning spectral imaging is one such new technology, which allows more of the emitted signal to be detected than comparable emission-scanning spectral imaging systems. Here, we have developed a new optical geometry that provides spectral illumination for use in excitation-scanning spectral imaging microscope systems. This was accomplished using a wavelength-specific LED array to acquire spectral image data. Feasibility of the LED-based spectral illuminator was evaluated through simulation and benchtop testing and assessment of imaging performance when integrated with a widefield fluorescence microscope. Ray tracing simulations (TracePro) were used to determine optimal optical component selection and geometry. Spectral imaging feasibility was evaluated using a series of 6-label fluorescent slides. The LED-based system response was compared to a previously tested thin-film tunable filter (TFTF)-based system. Spectral unmixing successfully discriminated all fluorescent components in spectral image data acquired from both the LED and TFTF systems. Therefore, the LED-based spectral illuminator provided spectral image data sets with comparable information content so as to allow identification of each fluorescent component. These results provide proof-of-principle demonstration of the ability to combine output from many discrete wavelength LED sources using a double-mirror (Cassegrain style) optical configuration that can be further modified to allow for high speed, video-rate spectral image acquisition. Real-time spectral fluorescence microscopy would allow monitoring of rapid cell signaling processes (i.e., Ca2+and other second messenger signaling) and has potential to be translated to clinical imaging platforms.
Hyperspectral imaging technologies have shown great promise for biomedical applications. These techniques have been especially useful for detection of molecular events and characterization of cell, tissue, and biomaterial composition. Unfortunately, hyperspectral imaging technologies have been slow to translate to clinical devices – likely due to increased cost and complexity of the technology as well as long acquisition times often required to sample a spectral image. We have demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging approaches which scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum can provide increased signal strength and faster imaging, compared to traditional emission-scanning approaches. We have also demonstrated that excitation-scanning approaches may be able to detect spectral differences between colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa in flash-frozen tissues. Here, we report feasibility results from using excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to screen pairs of fresh tumoral and nontumoral colorectal tissues. Tissues were imaged using a novel hyperspectral imaging fluorescence excitation scanning microscope, sampling a wavelength range of 360-550 nm, at 5 nm increments. Image data were corrected to achieve a NIST-traceable flat spectral response. Image data were then analyzed using a range of supervised and unsupervised classification approaches within ENVI software (Harris Geospatial Solutions). Supervised classification resulted in >99% accuracy for single-patient image data, but only 64% accuracy for multi-patient classification (n=9 to date), with the drop in accuracy due to increased false-positive detection rates. Hence, initial data indicate that this approach may be a viable detection approach, but that larger patient sample sizes need to be evaluated and the effects of inter-patient variability studied.more » « less