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Title: A Lysine-Targeted Affinity Label for Serine-β-Lactamase Also Covalently Modifies New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)
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2834 to 2843
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) grants resistance to a broad spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, including last-resort carbapenems, and is emerging as a global antibiotic resistance threat. Limited zinc availability adversely impacts the ability of NDM-1 to provide resistance, but a number of clinical variants have emerged that are more resistant to zinc scarcity (e.g., NDM-15). To provide a novel tool to better study metal ion sequestration in host–pathogen interactions, we describe the development of a fluorescent probe that reports on the dynamic metalation state of NDM within Escherichia coli. The thiol-containing probe selectively coordinates the dizinc metal cluster of NDM and results in a 17-fold increase in fluorescence intensity. Reversible binding enables competition and time-dependent studies that reveal fluorescence changes used to detect enzyme localization, substrate and inhibitor engagement, and changes to metalation state through the imaging of live E. coli using confocal microscopy. NDM-1 is shown to be susceptible to demetalation by intracellular and extracellular metal chelators in a live-cell model of zinc dyshomeostasis, whereas the NDM-15 metalation state is shown to be more resistant to zinc flux. The development of this reversible turn-on fluorescent probe for the metalation state of NDM provides a new tool for monitoring the impactmore »of metal ion sequestration by host defense mechanisms and for detecting inhibitor–target engagement during the development of therapeutics to counter this resistance determinant.« less
  2. The relationship between protein motions (i.e., dynamics) and enzymatic function has begun to be explored in β-lactamases as a way to advance our understanding of these proteins. In a recent study, we analyzed the dynamic profiles of TEM-1 (a ubiquitous class A β-lactamase) and several ancestrally reconstructed homologues. A chief finding of this work was that rigid residues that were allosterically coupled to the active site appeared to have profound effects on enzyme function, even when separated from the active site by many angstroms. In the present work, our aim was to further explore the implications of protein dynamics on β-lactamase function by altering the dynamic profile of TEM-1 using computational protein design methods. The Rosetta software suite was used to mutate amino acids surrounding either rigid residues that are highly coupled to the active site or to flexible residues with no apparent communication with the active site. Experimental characterization of ten designed proteins indicated that alteration of residues surrounding rigid, highly coupled residues, substantially affected both enzymatic activity and stability; in contrast, native-like activities and stabilities were maintained when flexible, uncoupled residues, were targeted. Our results provide additional insight into the structure-function relationship present in the TEM family ofmore »β-lactamases. Furthermore, the integration of computational protein design methods with analyses of protein dynamics represents a general approach that could be used to extend our understanding of the relationship between dynamics and function in other enzyme classes.« less