skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: A Compact Beamforming Concept Based on Element-to-Element Mixing For 5G Applications
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT)
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Regulatory networks often converge on very similar cis sequences to drive transcriptional programs due to constraints on what transcription factors are present. To determine the role of constraint loss on cis element evolution, we examined the recent appearance of a thiamine starvation regulated promoter in Candida glabrata . This species lacks the ancestral transcription factor Thi2, but still has the transcription factor Pdc2, which regulates thiamine starvation genes, allowing us to determine the effect of constraint change on a new promoter. We identified two different cis elements in C. glabrata - one present in the evolutionarily recent gene called CgPMU3 , and the other element present in the other thiamine (THI) regulated genes. Reciprocal swaps of the cis elements and incorporation of the S. cerevisiae Thi2 transcription factor-binding site into these promoters demonstrate that the two elements are functionally different from one another. Thus, this loss of an imposed constraint on promoter function has generated a novel cis sequence, suggesting that loss of trans constraints can generate a non-convergent pathway with the same output. 
    more » « less
  2. Introduction: Class II DNA transposable elements account for significant portions of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution through their mobilization. To escape inactivating mutations and persist in the host genome over evolutionary time, these elements must be mobilized enough to result in additional copies. These elements utilize a “cut and paste” transposition mechanism that does not intrinsically include replication. However, elements such as the rice derived mPing element have been observed to increase in copy number over time. Methods: We used yeast transposition assays to test several parameters that could affect the excision and insertion of mPing and its related elements. This included development of novel strategies for measuring element insertion and sequencing insertion sites. Results: Increased transposase protein expression increased the mobilization frequency of a small (430 bp) element, while overexpression inhibition was observed for a larger (7,126 bp) element. Smaller element size increased both the frequency of excision and insertion of these elements. The effect of yeast ploidy on element excision, insertion, and copy number provided evidence that homology dependent repair allows for replicative transposition. These elements were found to preferentially insert into yeast rDNA repeat sequences. Discussion: Identifying the parameters that influence transposition of these elements will facilitate their use for gene discovery and genome editing. These insights in to the behavior of these elements also provide important clues into how class II transposable elements have shaped eukaryotic genomes. 
    more » « less