skip to main content

Title: Magnetic Properties of Proton Irradiated Mn3Si2Te6 van der Waals Single Crystals
The bulk van der Waals crystal Mn3Si2Te6 (MST) has been irradiated with a proton beam of 2 MeV at a fluence of 1×1018 H+ cm-2. The temperature dependent magnetization measurements show a drastic decrease in the magnetization of 49.2% in the H//c direction observed in ferrimagnetic state. This decrease in magnetization is also reflected in the isothermal magnetization curves. No significant change in the ferrimagnetic transition temperature (75 K) was reflected after irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows no magnetically active defects present after irradiation. Here, experimental findings gathered from MST bulk crystals via magnetic measurements, magnetocaloric effect, and heat capacity are discussed.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1855377
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10113331
Journal Name:
MRS Advances
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 8
ISSN:
2059-8521
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials show promise in being the foundation for future spintronic technology. The magnetic behavior of Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), a vdW itinerant ferromagnet, was investigated before and after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation of the sample was carried out at a fluence of 1×1018 cm-2. The magnetization measurements revealed a small increase of saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 4% upon proton irradiation of the sample, in which, the magnetic field was applied parallel to the c-axis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for pristine and irradiated FGT revealed a general decrease in intensity after irradiation for Ge and Te and anmore »increase in peak intensity of unavoidable surface iron oxide. Furthermore, no noticeable change in the Curie temperature (TC =152 K) is observed in temperature dependent magnetization variation. This work signifies the importance of employing protons in tuning the magnetic properties of vdW materials.« less
  2. SUMMARY Lamellar magnetism is a source of remanent magnetization in natural rocks different from common bulk magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic minerals. It has been found to be a source for a wide class of magnetic anomalies with extremely high Koenigsberger ratio. Its physical origin are uncompensated interface moments in contact layers of nanoscale ilmenite lamellae inside an hematite host, which also generate unusual low-temperature (low-T) magnetic properties, such as shifted low-T hysteresis loops due to exchange bias. The atomic-magnetic basis for the exchange bias discovered in the hematite-ilmenite system is explored in a series of papers. In this third articlemore »of the series, simple models are developed for lamellae interactions of different structures when samples are either cooled in zero-field, or field-cooled in 5 T to temperatures below the ordering temperature of ilmenite. These models are built on the low-temperature measurements described earlier in Paper II. The important observations include: (i) the effects of lamellar shapes on magnetic coupling, (ii) the high-T acquisition of lamellar magnetism and low-T acquisition of magnetization of ilmenite lamellae, (iii) the intensity of lamellar magnetism and the consequent ilmenite magnetism in populations of randomly oriented crystals, (iv) lattice-preferred orientation of the titanohematite host crystal populations and (v) the effects of magnetic domain walls in the host on hysteresis properties. Based on exemplary growth models of lamellae with different geometries and surface couplings we here provide simple models to assess and explain the different observations listed above. Already the simplified models show that the shapes of the edges of ilmenite lamellae against their hematite hosts can control the degree of low-T coupling between ilmenite, and the lamellar magnetic moments. The models also explain certain features of the low-T exchange bias in the natural samples and emphasize the role of lattice-preferred orientation upon the intensity of remanent magnetization. The inverse link between ilmenite remanence and exchange-bias shift in bimodal low-T ilmenite lamellae is related to different densities of hematite domain walls induced by the clusters of ilmenite lamellae.« less
  3. SUMMARY Anisotropy of remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are highly sensitive and important indicators of geological processes which are largely controlled by mineralogical parameters of the ferrimagnetic fraction in rocks. To provide new physical insight into the complex interaction between magnetization structure, shape, and crystallographic relations, we here analyse ‘slice-and-view’ focused-ion-beam (FIB) nano-tomography data with micromagnetic modelling and single crystal hysteresis measurements. The data sets consist of 68 magnetite inclusions in orthopyroxene (Mg60) and 234 magnetite inclusions in plagioclase (An63) were obtained on mineral separates from the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Intrusive Complex, South Africa. Electron backscatter diffractionmore »was used to determine the orientation of the magnetite inclusions relative to the crystallographic directions of their silicate hosts. Hysteresis loops were calculated using the finite-element micromagnetics code MERRILL for each particle in 20 equidistributed field directions and compared with corresponding hysteresis loops measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) on silicate mineral separates from the same samples. In plagioclase the ratio of remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) for both model and measurement agree within 1.0 per cent, whereas the coercivity (Hc) of the average modelled curve is 20 mT lower than the measured value of 60 mT indicating the presence of additional sources of high coercivity in the bulk sample. The VSM hysteresis measurements of the orthopyroxene were dominated by multidomain (MD) magnetite, whereas the FIB location was chosen to avoid MD particles and thus contains only particles with diameters <500 nm that are considered to be the most important carriers of palaeomagnetic remanence. To correct for this sampling bias, measured MD hysteresis loops from synthetic and natural magnetites were combined with the average hysteresis loop from the MERRILL models of the FIB region. The result shows that while the modelled small-particle fraction only explains 6 per cent of the best fit to the measured VSM hysteresis loop, it contributes 28 per cent of the remanent magnetization. The modelled direction of maximal Mrs/Ms in plagioclase is subparallel to [001]plag, whereas Hc does not show a strong orientation dependence. The easy axis of magnetic remanence is in the direction of the magnetite population normal to (150)plag and the maximum calculated susceptibility (χ*) is parallel to [010]plag. For orthopyroxene, the maximum Mrs/Ms, maximum χ* and the easy axis of remanence is strongly correlated to the elongation axes of magnetite in the [001]opx direction. The maximum Hc is oriented along [100]opx and parallel to the minimum χ*, which reflects larger vortex nucleation fields when the applied field direction approaches the short axis. The maximum Hc is therefore orthogonal to the maximum Mrs/Ms, controlled by axis-aligned metastable single-domain states at zero field. The results emphasize that the nature of anisotropy in natural magnetite does not just depend on the particle orientations, but on the presence of different stable and metastable domain states, and the mechanism of magnetic switching between them. Magnetic modelling of natural magnetic particles is therefore a vital method to extract and process anisotropic hysteresis parameters directly from the primary remanence carriers.« less
  4. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a hybrid vanadium-organic coordination polymer with robust magnetic order, a Curie temperature T C of ∼110 K, a coercive field of ∼5 Oe at 5 K, and a maximum mass magnetization of about half that of the benchmark ferrimagnetic vanadium(tetracyanoethylene) ∼2 (V·(TCNE) ∼2 ). This material was prepared using a new tetracyano-substituted quinoidal organic small molecule 7 based on a tricyclic heterocycle 4-hexyl-4 H -pyrrolo[2,3- d :5,4- d ′]bis(thiazole) ( C6-PBTz ). Single crystal X-ray diffraction of the 2,6-diiodo derivative of the parent C6-PBTz , showed a disordered hexyl chain and amore »nearly linear arrangement of the substituents in positions 2 and 6 of the tricyclic core. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that C6-PBTz -based ligand 7 is a strong acceptor with an electron affinity larger than that of TCNE and several other ligands previously used in molecular magnets. This effect is due in part to the electron-deficient thiazole rings and extended delocalization of the frontier molecular orbitals. The ligand detailed in this study, a representative example of fused heterocycle aromatic cores with extended π conjugation, introduces new opportunities for structure–magnetic-property correlation studies where the chemistry of the tricyclic heterocycles can modulate the electronic properties and the substituent at the central N -position can vary the spatial characteristics of the magnetic polymer.« less
  5. Efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetically coupled materials that are integration-friendly and have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is of great interest for low-power, fast, dense magnetic storage and computing. Here, we report a distinct, giant bulk damping-like spin–orbit torque in strong-PMA ferrimagnetic Fe 100− x Tb x single layers that are integration-friendly (composition-uniform, amorphous, and sputter-deposited). For sufficiently thick layers, this bulk torque is constant in the efficiency per unit layer thickness, [Formula: see text]/ t, with a record-high value of 0.036 ± 0.008 nm −1 , and the damping-like torque efficiency [Formula: see text] achieves very large values for thick layers, up tomore »300% for 90 nm layers. This giant bulk torque by itself switches tens of nm thick Fe 100− x Tb x layers that have very strong PMA and high coercivity at current densities as low as a few MA/cm 2 . Surprisingly, for a given layer thickness, [Formula: see text] shows strong composition dependence and becomes negative for composition where the total angular momentum is oriented parallel to the magnetization rather than antiparallel. Our findings of giant bulk spin torque efficiency and intriguing torque-compensation correlation will stimulate study of such unique spin–orbit phenomena in a variety of ferrimagnetic hosts. This work paves a promising avenue for developing ultralow-power, fast, dense ferrimagnetic storage and computing devices.« less