Spontaneous infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals are temporally correlated within large-scale functional brain networks, motivating their use for mapping systems-level brain organization. However, recent electrophysiological and hemodynamic evidence suggest state-dependent propagation of infra-slow fluctuations, implying a functional role for ongoing infra-slow activity. Crucially, the study of infra-slow temporal lag structure has thus far been limited to large groups, as analyzing propagation delays requires extensive data averaging to overcome sampling variability. Here, we use resting-state fMRI data from 11 extensively-sampled individuals to characterize lag structure at the individual level. In addition to stable individual-specific features, we find spatiotemporal topographies in each subject similar to the group average. Notably, we find a set of early regions that are common to all individuals, are preferentially positioned proximal to multiple functional networks, and overlap with brain regions known to respond to diverse behavioral tasks—altogether consistent with a hypothesized ability to broadly influence cortical excitability. Our findings suggest that, like correlation structure, temporal lag structure is a fundamental organizational property of resting-state infra-slow activity.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Cerebral Cortex
- Oxford University Press
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Network organization of resting-state cerebral hemodynamics and their aliasing contributions measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Abstract Objective. Spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral hemodynamics measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are widely used to study the network organization of the brain. The temporal correlations among the ultra-slow, <0.1 Hz fluctuations across the brain regions are interpreted as functional connectivity maps and used for diagnostics of neurological disorders. However, despite the interest narrowed in the ultra-slow fluctuations, hemodynamic activity that exists beyond the ultra-slow frequency range could contribute to the functional connectivity, which remains unclear. Approach. In the present study, we have measured the brain-wide hemodynamics in the human participants with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a whole-head, cap-based and high-density montage at a sampling rate of 6.25 Hz. In addition, we have acquired resting state fMRI scans in the same group of participants for cross-modal evaluation of the connectivity maps. Then fNIRS data were deliberately down-sampled to a typical fMRI sampling rate of ∼0.5 Hz and the resulted differential connectivity maps were subject to a k-means clustering. Main results. Our diffuse optical topographical analysis of fNIRS data have revealed a default mode network (DMN) in the spontaneous deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin changes, which remarkably resemble the same fMRI network derived from participants. Moreover, we have shown that themore »
Abstract Context.Large multi-site neuroimaging datasets have significantly advanced our quest to understand brain-behavior relationships and to develop biomarkers of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, such data collections come at a cost, as the inevitable differences across samples may lead to biased or erroneous conclusions. Objective.We aim to validate the estimation of individual brain network dynamics fingerprints and appraise sources of variability in large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) datasets by providing a novel point of view based on data-driven dynamical models. Approach.Previous work has investigated this critical issue in terms of effects on static measures, such as functional connectivity and brain parcellations. Here, we utilize dynamical models (hidden Markov models—HMM) to examine how diverse scanning factors in multi-site fMRI recordings affect our ability to infer the brain’s spatiotemporal wandering between large-scale networks of activity. Specifically, we leverage a stable HMM trained on the Human Connectome Project (homogeneous) dataset, which we then apply to an heterogeneous dataset of traveling subjects scanned under a multitude of conditions. Main Results.Building upon this premise, we first replicate previous work on the emergence of non-random sequences of brain states. We next highlight how these time-varying brain activity patterns are robust subject-specific fingerprints. Finally, we suggest these fingerprintsmore »
A CONTRASTIVE LEARNING-BASED APPROACH TO MEASURE SPATIAL COUPLING AMONG BRAIN NETWORKS: A SCHIZOPHRENIA STUDYResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has become a widely used approach for detecting subtle differences in functional brain fluctuations in various studies of the healthy and disordered brain. Such studies are often based on temporal functional connectivity (i.e., the correlation between time courses derived from regions or networks within the fMRI data). While being successful for a number of tasks, temporal connectivity does not fully leverage the available spatial information. In this research study, we present a new perspective on spatial functional connectivity, which involves learning patterns of spatial coupling among brain networks by utilizing recent advances in deep learning as well as the contrastive learning framework. We show that we can learn domain-specific mappings of brain networks that can, in turn, be used to characterize differences between schizophrenia patients and control. Furthermore, we show that the coupling of intradomain networks in the controls is stronger than in patients suffering from the disorder. We also evaluate the coupling among networks of different domains and find various patterns of stronger or weaker coupling among certain domains, which provide additional insights about the brain.
Multimodal evidence suggests that brain regions accumulate information over timescales that vary according to anatomical hierarchy. Thus, these experimentally defined “temporal receptive windows” are longest in cortical regions that are distant from sensory input. Interestingly, spontaneous activity in these regions also plays out over relatively slow timescales (i.e., exhibits slower temporal autocorrelation decay). These findings raise the possibility that hierarchical timescales represent an intrinsic organizing principle of brain function. Here, using resting-state functional MRI, we show that the timescale of ongoing dynamics follows hierarchical spatial gradients throughout human cerebral cortex. These intrinsic timescale gradients give rise to systematic frequency differences among large-scale cortical networks and predict individual-specific features of functional connectivity. Whole-brain coverage permitted us to further investigate the large-scale organization of subcortical dynamics. We show that cortical timescale gradients are topographically mirrored in striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Finally, timescales in the hippocampus followed a posterior-to-anterior gradient, corresponding to the longitudinal axis of increasing representational scale. Thus, hierarchical dynamics emerge as a global organizing principle of mammalian brains.
Abstract Functional connectivity (FC) describes the statistical dependence between neuronal populations or brain regions in resting-state fMRI studies and is commonly estimated as the Pearson correlation of time courses. Clustering or community detection reveals densely coupled sets of regions constituting resting-state networks or functional systems. These systems manifest most clearly when FC is sampled over longer epochs but appear to fluctuate on shorter timescales. Here, we propose a new approach to reveal temporal fluctuations in neuronal time series. Unwrapping FC signal correlations yields pairwise co-fluctuation time series, one for each node pair or edge, and allows tracking of fine-scale dynamics across the network. Co-fluctuations partition the network, at each time step, into exactly two communities. Sampled over time, the overlay of these bipartitions, a binary decomposition of the original time series, very closely approximates functional connectivity. Bipartitions exhibit characteristic spatiotemporal patterns that are reproducible across participants and imaging runs, capture individual differences, and disclose fine-scale temporal expression of functional systems. Our findings document that functional systems appear transiently and intermittently, and that FC results from the overlay of many variable instances of system expression. Potential applications of this decomposition of functional connectivity into a set of binary patterns are discussed.