skip to main content

Title: Phylogeny of Hesionidae (Aciculata, Annelida), with four new species from deep-sea eastern Pacific methane seeps, and resolution of the affinity of Hesiolyra
Hesionidae Grube, 1850 currently comprises over 175 species in 28 genera, placed in several subfamilies. Discoveries in recent years have largely been of deep-sea taxa. Here we describe a further four new hesionid species, mainly from methane ‘cold’ seeps at around 1000–1800 m depths off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and new record of another species. Several of these taxa also occur at methane seeps in the Guaymas Basis (Mexico) and off the USA west coast (California and Oregon). The phylogenetic relationships within Hesionidae are reassessed via maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear (18S rRNA and 28SrRNA) and mitochondrial (16SrRNA and Cytochrome c oxidase I) loci for the new samples. On the basis of these results, we refer one of the new species to Gyptis Marion & Bobretzky in Marion, 1874, one to Neogyptis Pleijel, Rouse, Sundkvist & Nygren, 2012, and two to Sirsoe Pleijel, 1998. The new species Gyptis robertscrippsi n. sp., Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp., Sirsoe dalailamai n. sp. and Sirsoe munki n. sp. We refer to a collection of individuals from seeps ranging from Oregon to Costa Rica as Amphiduropsis cf. axialensis (Blake & Hilbig, 1990), even though this species was more » described from hydrothermal vents off Oregon. Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp. was generally found living inside the solemyid clam Acharax johnsoni (Dall, 1891). The position of Hesiolyra bergi Blake, 1985 is resolved on the basis of newly-collected specimens from near the type locality and, as a result, Hesiolyrinae Pleijel, 1998 is synonymized with Gyptini Pleijel, 1998 (and Gyptinae Pleijel, 1998). « less
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Invertebrate Systematics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856 has five branchiate genera: Branchipolynoe Pettibone, 1984, Branchinotogluma Pettibone, 1985, Branchiplicatus Pettibone, 1985, Peinaleopolynoe Desbruyères & Laubier, 1988, and Thermopolynoe Miura, 1994, all native to deep-sea, chemosynthetic-based habitats. Of these, Peinaleopolynoe has two accepted species; Peinaleopolynoe sillardi Desbruyères & Laubier, 1988 (Atlantic Ocean) and Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina Pettibone, 1993 (East Pacific Ocean). The goal of this study was to assess the phylogenetic position of Peinaleopolynoe , utilizing DNA sequences from a broad sampling of deep-sea polynoids. Representatives from all five branchiate genera were included, several species of which were sampled from near the type localities; Branchinotogluma sandersi Pettibone, 1985 from the Galápagos Rift (E/V “Nautilus”); Peinaleopolynoe sillardi from organic remains in the Atlantic Ocean; Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina from a whalefall off southern California (R/V “Western Flyer”) and Thermopolynoe branchiata Miura, 1994 from Lau Back-Arc Basin in the western Pacific (R/V “Melville”). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA, and CytB) and nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and H3) genes. The analyses revealed four new Peinaleopolynoe species from the Pacific Ocean that are formally described here: Peinaleopolynoe orphanae Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. , type locality Pescadero Basin in the Gulf of California, Mexico (R/V “Western Flyer”); Peinaleopolynoemore »elvisi Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. and Peinaleopolynoe goffrediae Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. , both with a type locality in Monterey Canyon off California (R/V “Western Flyer”) and Peinaleopolynoe mineoi Hatch & Rouse, sp. nov. from Costa Rica methane seeps (R/V “Falkor”). In addition to DNA sequence data, the monophyly of Peinaleopolynoe is supported by the presence of ventral papillae on segments 12–15. The results also demonstrated the paraphyly of Branchinotogluma and Lepidonotopodium Pettibone, 1983 and taxonomic revision of these genera is required. We apply the subfamily name Lepidonotopodinae Pettibone 1983, for the clade comprised of Branchipolynoe , Branchinotogluma , Bathykurila , Branchiplicatus , Lepidonotopodium , Levensteiniella Pettibone, 1985, Thermopolynoe , and Peinaleopolynoe .« less
  2. The bathyal serpulid Laminatubus alvini ten Hove & Zibrowius, 1986 was described from the periphery of hydrothermal vents of the Galapagos Rift and has been recorded from other vent communities of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Here we assessed the biodiversity of serpulids collected from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents and methane seeps using DNA sequences and morphology. Laminatubus alvini showed little genetic variation over a wide geographic range from the Alarcon Rise vents in southern Gulf of California (~23°N), to at least a point at 38°S on the EPR. Specimens from several methane seeps off Costa Rica and the Gulf of California (Mexico) differed markedly from those of Laminatubus alvini on DNA sequence data and in having seven thoracic chaetigers and lacking Spirobranchus-type special collar chaetae, thus fitting the diagnosis of Neovermilia. However, phylogenetic analysis of molecular data showed that L. alvini and the seep specimens form a well-supported clade. Moreover, among the seep specimens there was minimally a ~7% distance in mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences between a shallow-water (1000 m) seep clade restricted to Costa Rica and a deep-water clade (1800 m) from Costa Rica to Gulf of California. We describe the seep taxa here as morphologically indistinguishable L.more »paulbrooksi n. sp. and L. joycebrooksae n. sp.« less
  3. Exploration of the deep sea off the Pacific margin of Costa Rica has resulted in the discovery of a number of new species and reports for the region. Here, we report on the occurrence of the octocoral genus Swiftia, and describe a new species collected by the Alvin submersible off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The new species has been observed at around 1000 m depth, growing on authigenic carbonates near methane seeps. Swiftia sahlingi sp. nov. is characterised by having bright red colonies that are with limited branching, with slightly raised polyp-mounds, thin coenenchyme mainly composed of long warty spindles, and conspicuous plates. A molecular phylogenetic analysis supports the differences between this new taxon and the closest Swiftia species. The new species represents the first record of the genus from Costa Rica and in fact for the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
  4. The discovery of four undescribed flabelligerid species from deep-water in Pacific Costa Rica resulted in the restriction of Diplocirrus Haase, 1915. As currently understood, Diplocirrus and Pherusa Oken, 1807 are separated after their morphological pattern. The species belonging in Diplocirrus have two types of branchiae, poorly developed cephalic cages and multiarticulate neurochaetae, whereas Pherusa species have branchiae of one type, well-developed cephalic cages and completely anchylosed neurochaetae. Benthic sampling and processing usually damage cephalic cages and if chaetae are completely broken, one could regard specimens without them, when they actually have it, but lost after sieving. Sampling using Alvin deep-sea submarine at methane seeps off Costa Rica resulted in some well-preserved specimens, and some of them fall between these two genera because they have well developed cephalic cages, and multiarticulate neurochaetae. Saphobranchia Chamberlin, 1919, with Stylarioides longisetosa von Marenzeller, 1890, as type species, is herein reinstated for some species previously included in Diplocirrus, restricted. The transferred species, including three ones newly described herein, have branchiae of a single type, long cephalic cage and body chaetae, and neurochaetae basally anchylosed and medially and distally articulated; some species currently included in Diplocirrus described from Arctic or deep water sediments are transferred intomore »it. A key to identify all species in Saphobranchia, and another key to identify species in the restricted Diplocirrus are also included. The three new Saphobranchia species are S. canela n. sp., S. ilys n. sp. and S. omorpha n. sp. The fourth species belongs in Lamispina Salazar-Vallejo, 2014, and it is herein described as L. polycerata n. sp. after the presence of some long papillae along anterior margin of chaetiger 1.« less
  5. The four named species of Branchipolynoe all live symbiotically in mytilid mussels (Bathymodiolus) that occur at hydrothermal vents or methane seeps. Analyses using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) genes, as well as morphology, were conducted on a collection of Branchipolynoe from Pacific Costa Rican methane seeps and West Pacific hydrothermal vents. This revealed five new species of Branchipolynoe, and these are formally described. The new species from Costa Rica live in three species of Bathymodiolus mussels (also new) at depths ranging from 1000 to 1800 m. Branchipolynoe kajsae n. sp. and Branchipolynoe halliseyae n. sp. were found in all three undescribed Bathymodiolus species, while Branchipolynoe eliseae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 2, and Branchipolynoe meridae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 3. Hence, Bathymodiolus sp. 1 hosted all four of the new species, while the other two Bathymodiolus hosted three each. Most mussels contained only one specimen of Branchipolynoe; where there was more than one, these were often a female and smaller male of the same species. The newly discovered species from the West Pacific, Branchipolynoe tjiasmantoi n. sp., lives in unidentified Bathymodiolus at depths ranging from 674 to 2657 mmore »from hydrothermal vents in the North Fiji (Fiji) and Lau Basins (Tonga) and also from New Zealand, Vanuatu, and the Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). The phylogenetic and biogeographical implications of this diversity of Branchipolynoe are discussed.« less