skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: The first view of δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars with the TESS mission
ABSTRACT

We present the first asteroseismic results for δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars observed in Sectors 1 and 2 of the TESS mission. We utilize the 2-min cadence TESS data for a sample of 117 stars to classify their behaviour regarding variability and place them in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram using Gaia DR2 data. Included within our sample are the eponymous members of two pulsator classes, γ Doradus and SX Phoenicis. Our sample of pulsating intermediate-mass stars observed by TESS also allows us to confront theoretical models of pulsation driving in the classical instability strip for the first time and show that mixing processes in the outer envelope play an important role. We derive an empirical estimate of 74 per cent for the relative amplitude suppression factor as a result of the redder TESS passband compared to the Kepler mission using a pulsating eclipsing binary system. Furthermore, our sample contains many high-frequency pulsators, allowing us to probe the frequency variability of hot young δ Scuti stars, which were lacking in the Kepler mission data set, and identify promising targets for future asteroseismic modelling. The TESS data also allow us to refine the stellar parameters of SX Phoenicis, which is believed to be a blue straggler.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1852010
NSF-PAR ID:
10123140
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  more » ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;   « less
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
490
Issue:
3
ISSN:
0035-8711
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 4040-4059
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    51 Eri is well known for hosting a directly imaged giant planet and for its membership to theβPictoris moving group. Using 2 minute cadence photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), we detect multiperiodic variability in 51 Eri that is consistent with pulsations of Gamma Doradus (γDor) stars. We identify the most significant pulsation modes (with frequencies between ∼0.5 and 3.9 cycles day−1and amplitudes ranging between ∼1 and 2 mmag) as dipole and quadrupole gravity modes, as well as Rossby modes, as previously observed in KeplerγDor stars. Our results demonstrate that previously reported variability attributed to stellar rotation is instead likely due toγDor pulsations. Using the mean frequency of the= 1 gravity modes, together with empirical trends of the KeplerγDor population, we estimate a plausible stellar core rotation period of0.90.1+0.3days for 51 Eri. We find no significant evidence for transiting companions around 51 Eri in the residual light curve. The detection ofγDor pulsations presented here, together with follow-up observations and modeling, may enable the determination of an asteroseismic age for this benchmark system. Future TESS observations would allow a constraint on the stellar core rotation rate, which in turn traces the surface rotation rate, and thus would help clarify whether or not the stellar equatorial plane and orbit of 51 Eri b are coplanar.

     
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Context. The recent arrival of continuous photometric observations of unprecedented quality from space missions has strongly promoted the study of pulsating stars and caused great interest in the stellar astrophysics community. In the particular case of pulsating white dwarfs, the TESS mission is taking asteroseismology of these compact stars to a higher level, emulating or even surpassing the performance of its predecessor, the Kepler mission. Aims. We present a detailed asteroseismological analysis of six GW Vir stars that includes the observations collected by the TESS mission. Methods. We processed and analyzed TESS observations of RX J2117+3412 (TIC 117070953), HS 2324+3944 (TIC 352444061), NGC 6905 (TIC 402913811), NGC 1501 (TIC 084306468), NGC 2371 (TIC 446005482), and K 1−16 (TIC 233689607). We carried out a detailed asteroseismological analysis of these stars on the basis of PG 1159 evolutionary models that take into account the complete evolution of the progenitor stars. We constrained the stellar mass of these stars by comparing the observed period spacing with the average of the computed period spacings, and we employed the individual observed periods to search for a representative seismological model when possible. Results. In total, we extracted 58 periodicities from the TESS light curves of these GW Vir stars using a standard prewhitening procedure to derive the potential pulsation frequencies. All the oscillation frequencies that we found are associated with g -mode pulsations, with periods spanning from ∼817 s to ∼2682 s. We find constant period spacings for all but one star (K 1−16), which allowed us to infer their stellar masses and constrain the harmonic degree ℓ of the modes. Based on rotational frequency splittings, we derive the rotation period of RX J2117+3412, obtaining a value in agreement with previous determinations. We performed period-to-period fit analyses on five of the six analyzed stars. For four stars (RX J2117+3412, HS 2324+3944, NGC 1501, and NGC 2371), we were able to find an asteroseismological model with masses that agree with the stellar mass values inferred from the period spacings and are generally compatible with the spectroscopic masses. Obtaining seismological models allowed us to estimate the seismological distance and compare it with the precise astrometric distance measured with Gaia . Finally, we find that the period spectrum of K 1−16 exhibits dramatic changes in frequency and amplitude that together with the scarcity of modes prevented us from meaningful seismological modeling of this star. Conclusions. The high-quality data collected by the TESS space mission, considered simultaneously with ground-based observations, provide very valuable input to the asteroseismology of GW Vir stars, similar to the case of other classes of pulsating white dwarf stars. The TESS mission, in conjunction with future space missions and upcoming surveys, will make impressive progress in white dwarf asteroseismology. 
    more » « less
  3. Context. The TESS space mission has recently demonstrated its great potential to discover new pulsating white dwarf and pre-white dwarf stars, and to detect periodicities with high precision in already known white-dwarf pulsators. Aims. We report the discovery of two new pulsating He-rich atmosphere white dwarfs (DBVs) and present a detailed asteroseismological analysis of three already known DBV stars employing observations collected by the TESS mission along with ground-based data. Methods. We processed and analyzed TESS observations of the three already known DBV stars PG 1351+489 (TIC 471015205), EC 20058−5234 (TIC 101622737), and EC 04207−4748 (TIC 153708460), and the two new DBV pulsators WDJ152738.4−50207.4 (TIC 150808542) and WD 1708−871 (TIC 451533898), whose variability is reported for the first time in this paper. We also carried out a detailed asteroseismological analysis using fully evolutionary DB white-dwarf models built considering the complete evolution of the progenitor stars. We constrained the stellar mass of three of these target stars by means of the observed period spacing, and derived a representative asteroseismological model using the individual periods, when possible. Results. We extracted frequencies from the TESS light curves of these DBV stars using a standard pre-whitening procedure to derive the potential pulsation frequencies. All the oscillation frequencies that we found are associated with g -mode pulsations with periods spanning from ∼190 s to ∼936 s. We find hints of rotation from frequency triplets in some of the targets, including the two new DBVs. For three targets, we find constant period spacings, which allowed us to infer their stellar masses and constrain the harmonic degree ℓ of the modes. We also performed period-to-period fit analyses and found an asteroseismological model for three targets, with stellar masses generally compatible with the spectroscopic masses. Obtaining seismological models allowed us to estimate the seismological distances and compare them with the precise astrometric distances measured with Gaia . We find a good agreement between the seismic and the astrometric distances for three stars (PG 1351+489, EC 20058-5234, and WD 1708-871); although, for the other two stars (EC 04207-4748 and WD J152738.4-50207), the discrepancies are substantial. Conclusions. The high-quality data from the TESS mission continue to provide important clues which can be used to help determine the internal structure of pulsating pre-white dwarf and white dwarf stars through the tools of asteroseismology. 
    more » « less
  4. Context. The collection of high-quality photometric data by space telescopes, such as the completed Kepler mission and the ongoing TESS program, is revolutionizing the area of white-dwarf asteroseismology. Among the different kinds of pulsating white dwarfs, there are those that have He-rich atmospheres, and they are called DBVs or V777 Her variable stars. The archetype of these pulsating white dwarfs, GD 358, is the focus of the present paper. Aims. We report a thorough asteroseismological analysis of the DBV star GD 358 (TIC 219074038) based on new high-precision photometric data gathered by the TESS space mission combined with data taken from the Earth. Methods. We reduced TESS observations of the DBV star GD 358 and performed a detailed asteroseismological analysis using fully evolutionary DB white-dwarf models computed accounting for the complete prior evolution of their progenitors. We assessed the mass of this star by comparing the measured mean period separation with the theoretical averaged period spacings of the models, and we used the observed individual periods to look for a seismological stellar model. We detected potential frequency multiplets for GD 358, which we used to identify the harmonic degree ( ℓ ) of the pulsation modes and rotation period. Results. In total, we detected 26 periodicities from the TESS light curve of this DBV star using standard pre-whitening. The oscillation frequencies are associated with nonradial g (gravity)-mode pulsations with periods from ∼422 s to ∼1087 s. Moreover, we detected eight combination frequencies between ∼543 s and ∼295 s. We combined these data with a huge amount of observations from the ground. We found a constant period spacing of 39.25 ± 0.17 s, which helped us to infer its mass ( M ⋆  = 0.588 ± 0.024  M ⊙ ) and constrain the harmonic degree ℓ of the modes. We carried out a period-fit analysis on GD 358, and we were successful in finding an asteroseismological model with a stellar mass ( M ⋆ = 0.584 −0.019 +0.025   M ⊙ ), compatible with the stellar mass derived from the period spacing, and in line with the spectroscopic mass ( M ⋆  = 0.560 ± 0.028  M ⊙ ). In agreement with previous works, we found that the frequency splittings vary according to the radial order of the modes, suggesting differential rotation. Obtaining a seismological model made it possible to estimate the seismological distance ( d seis  = 42.85 ± 0.73 pc) of GD 358, which is in very good accordance with the precise astrometric distance measured by Gaia EDR3 ( π  = 23.244 ± 0.024,  d Gaia  = 43.02 ± 0.04 pc). Conclusions. The high-quality data measured with the TESS space telescope, used in combination with data taken from ground-based observatories, provides invaluable information for conducting asteroseismological studies of DBV stars, analogously to what happens with other types of pulsating white-dwarf stars. The currently operating TESS mission, together with the advent of other similar space missions and new stellar surveys, will give an unprecedented boost to white dwarf asteroseismology. 
    more » « less
  5. ABSTRACT

    We present stellar variability towards the young open cluster NGC 6823. Time series V- and I-band CCD photometry led to identification and characterization of 88 variable stars, of which only 14 have been previously recognized. We ascertain the membership of each variable with optical UBVI and infrared photometry, and with Gaia EDR3 parallax and proper motion data. Seventy two variable stars are found to be cluster members, of which 25 are main sequence stars and 48 are pre-main-sequence stars. The probable cluster members collectively suggest an isochrone age of the cluster to be about 2 Myrs based on the GAIA photometry. With the colour and magnitude, as well as the shape of the light curve, we have classified the main sequence variables into β Cep, δ Scuti, slowly pulsating B type, and new class variables. Among the pre-main-sequence variables, eight are classical T Tauri variables, and four are Herbig Ae/Be objects, whereas the remaining belong to the weak-lined T Tauri population. The variable nature of 32 stars is validated with TESS light curves. Our work provides refined classification of variability of pre-main-sequence and main-sequence cluster members of the active star-forming complex, Sharpless 86. Despite no strong evidence of the disc-locking mechanism in the present sample of TTSs, one TTS with larger Δ(I − K) is found to be a slow rotator.

     
    more » « less