skip to main content

Title: G−0.02−0.07, the compact H  ii region complex nearest to the galactic center with ALMA

We have observed the compact H ii region complex nearest to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, G−0.02−0.07, using ALMA in the H42α recombination line, CS J = 2–1, H13CO+J = 1–0, and SiO v = 0, J = 2–1 emission lines, and the 86 GHz continuum emission. The H ii regions HII-A to HII-C in the cluster are clearly resolved into a shell-like feature with a bright half and a dark half in the recombination line and continuum emission. The analysis of the absorption features in the molecular emission lines show that H ii-A, B, and C are located on the near side of the “Galactic center 50 km s−1 molecular cloud” (50MC), but HII-D is located on the far side of it. The electron temperatures and densities ranges are Te = 5150–5920 K and ne = 950–2340 cm−3, respectively. The electron temperatures in the bright half are slightly lower than those in the dark half, while the electron densities in the bright half are slightly higher than those in the dark half. The H ii regions are embedded in the ambient molecular gas. There are some molecular gas components compressed by a C-type shock wave around the H ii regions. From the line width of the H42α recombination line, the expansion velocities of HII-A, HII-B, HII-C, and HII-D are estimated to be Vexp = 16.7, 11.6, 11.1, and 12.1 km s−1, respectively. The expansion timescales of HII-A, HII-B, HII-C, and HII-D are estimated to be tage ≃ 1.4 × 104, 1.7 × 104, 2.0 × 104, and 0.7 × 104 yr, respectively. The spectral types of the central stars from HII-A to HII-D are estimated to be O8V, O9.5V, O9V, and B0V, respectively. These derived spectral types are roughly consistent with the previous radio estimation. The positional relation among the H ii regions, the SiO molecule enhancement area, and Class-I maser spots suggest that a shock wave caused by a cloud–cloud collision propagated along the line from HII-C to HII-A in the 50MC. The shock wave would have triggered the massive star formation.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Context. Atomic gas in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) is organized in filamentary structures. These structures usually host cold and dense molecular clumps. The Galactic magnetic field is considered to play an important role in the formation of these clumps. Aims. Our goal is to explore the role of the magnetic field in the H I -H 2 transition process. Methods. We targeted a diffuse ISM filamentary cloud toward the Ursa Major cirrus where gas transitions from atomic to molecular. We probed the magnetic field properties of the cloud with optical polarization observations. We performed multiwavelength spectroscopic observations of different species in order to probe the gas phase properties of the cloud. We observed the CO ( J = 1−0) and ( J = 2−1) lines in order to probe the molecular content of the cloud. We also obtained observations of the [C ii ] 157.6 µ m emission line in order to trace the CO-dark H 2 gas and estimate the mean volume density of the cloud. Results. We identified two distinct subregions within the cloud. One of the regions is mostly atomic, while the other is dominated by molecular gas, although most of it is CO-dark. The estimated plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength between the two regions remains constant within uncertainties and lies in the range 13–30 µG. The total magnetic field strength does not scale with density. This implies that gas is compressed along the field lines. We also found that turbulence is trans-Alfvénic, with M A ≈ 1. In the molecular region, we detected an asymmetric CO clump whose minor axis is closer, with a 24° deviation, to the mean magnetic field orientation than the angle of its major axis. The H i velocity gradients are in general perpendicular to the mean magnetic field orientation except for the region close to the CO clump, where they tend to become parallel. This phenomenon is likely related to gas undergoing gravitational infall. The magnetic field morphology of the target cloud is parallel to the H i column density structure of the cloud in the atomic region, while it tends to become perpendicular to the H i structure in the molecular region. On the other hand, the magnetic field morphology seems to form a smaller offset angle with the total column density shape (including both atomic and molecular gas) of this transition cloud. Conclusions. In the target cloud where the H i –H 2 transition takes place, turbulence is trans-Alfvénic, and hence the magnetic field plays an important role in the cloud dynamics. Atomic gas probably accumulates preferentially along the magnetic field lines and creates overdensities where molecular gas can form. The magnetic field morphology is probed better by the total column density shape of the cloud, and not its H i column density shape. 
    more » « less
  2. Characterizing the physical conditions (density, temperature, ionization state, metallicity, etc) of the interstellar medium is critical to improving our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this work, we present a multi-line study of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy of a quasar atz ≈ 6.4, that is, when the universe was 840 Myr old. This galaxy is one of the most active and massive objects emerging from the dark ages and therefore represents a benchmark for models of the early formation of massive galaxies. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array to target an ensemble of tracers of ionized, neutral, and molecular gas, namely the following fine-structure lines: [O III] 88 μm, [N II] 122 μm, [C II] 158 μm, and [C I] 370 μm – as well as the rotational transitions of CO(7–6), CO(15–14), CO(16–15), and CO(19–18); OH 163.1 μm and 163.4 μm; along with H2O 3(0,3)–2(1,2), 3(3,1)–4(0,4), 3(3,1)–3(2,2), 4(0,4)–3(1,3), and 4(3,2)–4(2,3). All the targeted fine-structure lines were detected, along with half of the targeted molecular transitions. By combining the associated line luminosities with the constraints on the dust temperature from the underlying continuum emission and predictions from photoionization models of the interstellar medium, we find that the ionized phase accounts for about one-third of the total gaseous mass budget and is responsible for half of the total [C II] emission. This phase is characterized by a high density (n ∼ 180 cm−3) that typical of HII regions. The spectral energy distribution of the photoionizing radiation is comparable to that emitted by B-type stars. Star formation also appears to be driving the excitation of the molecular medium. We find marginal evidence for outflow-related shocks in the dense molecular phase, but not in other gas phases. This study showcases the power of multi-line investigations in unveiling the properties of the star-forming medium in galaxies at cosmic dawn.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract Using recently acquired Hubble Space Telescope NIR observations ( J , Pa β , and H bands) of the nearby galaxy NGC 1313, we investigate the timescales required by a young star cluster to emerge from its natal cloud. We search for extincted star clusters, potentially embedded in their natal cloud as either (1) compact sources in regions with high H α /Pa β extinctions or (2) compact H ii regions that appear as point-like sources in the Pa β emission map. The NUV–optical–NIR photometry of the candidate clusters is used to derive their ages, masses, and extinctions via a least- χ 2 spectral energy distribution broad- and narrowband fitting process. The 100 clusters in the final samples have masses in the range and moderate extinctions, E ( B − V ) ≲ 1.0 mag. Focusing on the young clusters (0–6 Myr), we derive a weak correlation between extinction and age of the clusters. Almost half of the clusters have low extinctions, E ( B − V ) < 0.25 mag, already at very young ages (≤3 Myr), suggesting that dust is quickly removed from clusters. A stronger correlation is found between the morphology of the nebular emission (compact, partial or absent, both in H α and Pa β ) and cluster age. Relative fractions of clusters associated with a specific nebular morphology are used to estimate the typical timescales for clearing the natal gas cloud, resulting in between 3 and 5 Myr, ∼1 Myr older than what was estimated from NUV–optical-based cluster studies. This difference hints at a bias for optical-only-based studies, which James Webb Space Telescope will address in the coming years. 
    more » « less
  4. Context. The electron density ( n e − ) plays an important role in setting the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium. However, measurements of n e − in neutral clouds have been directly obtained only toward a few lines of sight or they rely on indirect determinations. Aims. We use carbon radio recombination lines and the far-infrared lines of C + to directly measure n e − and the gas temperature in the envelope of the integral shaped filament (ISF) in the Orion A molecular cloud. Methods. We observed the C102 α (6109.901 MHz) and C109 α (5011.420 MHz) carbon radio recombination lines (CRRLs) using the Effelsberg 100 m telescope at ≈2′ resolution toward five positions in OMC-2 and OMC-3. Since the CRRLs have similar line properties, we averaged them to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra. We compared the intensities of the averaged CRRLs, and the 158 μm-[CII] and [ 13 CII] lines to the predictions of a homogeneous model for the C + /C interface in the envelope of a molecular cloud and from this comparison we determined the electron density, temperature and C + column density of the gas. Results. We detect the CRRLs toward four positions, where their velocity ( v LSR  ≈ 11 km s −1 ) and widths ( σ v  ≈ 1 km s −1 ) confirms that they trace the envelope of the ISF. Toward two positions we detect the CRRLs, and the 158 μm-[CII] and [ 13 CII] lines with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5, and we find n e −  = 0.65 ± 0.12 cm −3 and 0.95 ± 0.02 cm −3 , which corresponds to a gas density n H  ≈ 5 × 10 3 cm −3 and a thermal pressure of p th  ≈ 4 × 10 5 K cm −3 . We also constrained the ionization fraction in the denser portions of the molecular cloud using the HCN(1–0) and C 2 H(1–0) lines to x (e − ) ≤ 3 × 10 −6 . Conclusions. The derived electron densities and ionization fraction imply that x (e − ) drops by a factor ≥100 between the C + layer and the regions probed by HCN(1–0). This suggests that electron collisional excitation does not play a significant role in setting the excitation of HCN(1–0) toward the region studied, as it is responsible for only ≈10% of the observed emission. 
    more » « less
  5. Context. The giant molecular cloud Sagittarius B2 (hereafter SgrB2) is the most massive region with ongoing high-mass star formation in the Galaxy. Two ultra-compact H ii (UCHii ) regions were identified in SgrB2’s central hot cores, SgrB2(M) and SgrB2(N). Aims. Our aim is to characterize the properties of the H ii regions in the entire SgrB2 cloud. Comparing the H ii regions and the dust cores, we aim to depict the evolutionary stages of different parts of SgrB2. Methods. We use the Very Large Array in its A, CnB, and D configurations, and in the frequency band C (~6GHz) to observe the whole SgrB2 complex. Using ancillary VLA data at 22.4 GHz and ALMA data at 96 GHz, we calculated the physical parameters of the UCH ii regions and their dense gas environment. Results. We identify 54 UCHii regions in the 6 GHz image, 39 of which are also detected at 22.4 GHz. Eight of the 54 UCHii regions are newly discovered. The UCHii regions have radii between 0.006 pc and 0.04 pc, and have emission measure between 10 6 pc cm 6 and 10 9 pc cm 6 . The UCHii regions are ionized by stars of types from B0.5 to O6. We found a typical gas density of ~10 6 –10 9 cm 3 around the UCH ii regions. The pressure of the UCH ii regions and the dense gas surrounding them are comparable. The expansion timescale of these UCHii regions is determined to be ~10 4 –10 5 yr. The percentage of the dust cores that are associated with H ii regions are 33%, 73%, 4%, and 1% for SgrB2(N), SgrB2(M), SgrB2(S), and SgrB2(DS), respectively. Two-thirds of the dust cores in SgrB2(DS) are associated with outflows. Conclusions. The electron densities of the UCHii regions we identified are in agreement with that of typical UCHii regions, while the radii are smaller than those of the typical UCHii regions. The dust cores in SgrB2(M) are more evolved than in SgrB2(N). The dust cores in SgrB2(DS) are younger than in SgrB2(M) or SgrB2(N). 
    more » « less