In the first days of WZ Sge-type dwarf nova (DN) outbursts, the 2 : 1 resonance induces a spiral arm structure in the accretion disk, which is observed as early superhumps in optical light curves. We reports on our optical observations of an eclipsing WZ Sge-type DN PNV J00444033+4113068 during its 2021 superoutburst using the 3.8 m Seimei telescope and through the Variable Star Network collaboration. The eclipse analysis showed that its orbital period was 0.055425534(1) d. Our observations confirmed early superhumps with an amplitude of 0.7 mag, the largest amplitude among known WZ Sge-type DNe. More interestingly, its early superhumps became the reddest around their secondary minimum, whereas other WZ Sge-type DNe show the reddest color around the early superhump maximum. The spectrum around the peak of the outburst showed two double-peaked emission lines of He ii 4686 Å and Hα with a peak separation of ≥700 km s−1, supporting a very high-inclination system. With the early superhump mapping, the unique profile and color of the early superhump are successfully reproduced by an accretion disk with a vertically extended double arm structure. Therefore, a large amplitude and a unique color behavior of the early superhumps in PNV J00444033+4113068 can be explained by the 2 : 1 resonance model along with other WZ Sge-type DNe.
Velocity offsets in the broad Balmer lines of quasars and their temporal variations serve as indirect evidence for bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) at sub-parsec separations. In this work, we test the SBHB hypothesis for 14 quasars with double-peaked broad emission lines using their long-term (14–41 yr) radial velocity curves. We improve on the previous work by (i) using elliptical instead of circular orbits for the SBHBs, (ii) adopting a statistical model for radial velocity jitter, (iii) employing a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the orbital parameter space efficiently and build posterior distributions of physical parameters, and (iv) incorporating new observations. We determine empirically that jitter comprises approximately Gaussian distributed fluctuations about the smooth radial velocity curves that are larger than the measurement errors by factors of a few. We initially treat jitter by enlarging the effective error bars and then verify this approach via a variety of Gaussian process models for it. We find lower mass limits for the hypothesized SBHBs in the range 108–1011 M⊙. For seven objects, the SBHB scenario appears unlikely based on goodness-of-fit tests. For two additional objects, the minimum SBHB masses are unreasonably large (>1010 M⊙), strongly disfavouring the SBHB scenario. Using constraints more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 1104-1126
- Oxford University Press
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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