High-performance graphene-integrated thermo-optic switch: design and experimental validation [Invited]

The extraordinary optical properties of single-layer graphene have spurred the development of a variety of photonic components. We have previously demonstrated a scalable and versatile platform to facilitate the integration of graphene and other 2-D materials with chalcogenide glass-based planar photonics. In this paper, we detail the design criteria and optimization guidelines towards high-performance graphene-integrated thermo-optic (TO) switches based on the chalcogenide glass-on-graphene platform. Notably, absorption loss of graphene can be reduced to < 20 dB/cm when it is sandwiched inside photonic structures capitalizing on the anisotropic absorption property of graphene. We quantify energy efficiency of the TO switch, showing that the choice of cladding materials plays a critical role in improving device efficiency. Furthermore, we report a record TO switching efficiency of 10 nm/mW via judicious engineering of the overlap between optical mode and thermal profile.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10130339
Journal Name:
Optical Materials Express
Volume:
10
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 387
ISSN:
2159-3930
Publisher:
Optical Society of America
5. Structural disorder inherent to amorphous materials affords them unique, tailorable properties desirable for diverse applications, but our ability to exploit these phenomena is limited by a lack of understanding of complex structure-property relationships. Here we focus on nonlinear optical absorption and derive a relationship between disorder and the two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient. We employ an open-aperture Z-scan to measure the 2PA spectra of arsenic (III) sulfide ($As2S3$) chalcogenide glass films processed with two solvents that impart different levels of structural disorder. We find that the effect of solvent choice on 2PA depends on the energy of the exciting photons and explain this as a consequence of bonding disorder and electron state localization. Our results demonstrate how optical nonlinearities in$As2S3$can be enhanced through informed processing and present a fundamental relationship between disorder and 2PA for a generalized amorphous solid.