A flat-spectrum flare in S4 0444+63 revealed by a new implementation of multiwavelength single-dish observations
ABSTRACT

Relativistic amplification boosts the contribution of the jet base to the total emission in blazars, thus making single-dish observations useful and practical to characterize their physical state, particularly during episodes of enhanced multiwavelength activity. Following the detection of a new gamma-ray source by Fermi-LAT in 2017 July, we observed S4 0444+63 in order to secure its identification as a gamma-ray blazar. We conducted observations with the Medicina and Noto radio telescopes at 5, 8, and 24 GHz for a total of 12 epochs between 2017 August 1 and 2018 September 22. We carried out the observations with on-the-fly cross-scans and reduced the data with our newly developed Cross-scan Analysis Pipeline, which we present here in detail for the first time. We found the source to be in an elevated state of emission at radio wavelength, compared to historical values, which lasted for several months. The maximum luminosity was reached on 2018 May 16 at 24 GHz, with $L_{24}=(1.7\pm 0.3)\times 10^{27}\ \mathrm{W\, Hz}^{-1}$; the spectral index was found to evolve from slightly rising to slightly steep. Besides the new observations, which have proved to be an effective and efficient tool to secure the identification of the source, additional single dish and very long more »

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10131401
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
492
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2807-2817
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
We report the identification of radio (0.144–3 GHz) and mid-, far-infrared, and sub-mm (24–850μm) emission at the position of one of 41 UV-bright ($\mathrm{M_{\mathrm{UV}}}^{ }\lesssim -21.25$) z ≃ 6.6–6.9 Lyman-break galaxy candidates in the 1.5 deg2 COSMOS field. This source, COS-87259, exhibits a sharp flux discontinuity (factor >3) between two narrow/intermediate bands at 9450 and 9700 Å and is undetected in all nine bands blueward of 9600 Å, as expected from a Lyman alpha break at z ≃ 6.8. The full multiwavelength (X-ray through radio) data of COS-87529 can be self-consistently explained by a very massive (M* = 1010.8 M⊙) and extremely red (rest-UV slope β = −0.59) z ≃ 6.8 galaxy with hyperluminous infrared emission (LIR = 1013.6 L⊙) powered by both an intense burst of highly obscured star formation (SFR ≈ 1800 M⊙ yr−1) and an obscured ($\tau _{_{\mathrm{9.7\mu m}}} = 7.7\pm 2.5$) radio-loud (L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025.4 W Hz−1) active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio emission is compact (1.04 ± 0.12 arcsec) and exhibits an ultra-steep spectrum between 1.32 and 3 GHz ($\alpha =-1.57^{+0.22}_{-0.21}$) that flattens at lower frequencies ($\alpha = -0.86^{+0.22}_{-0.16}$ between 0.144 and 1.32 GHz), consistent with known z > 4 radio galaxies. We also demonstrate that COS-87259 may reside in a significant (11×) galaxymore »
5. ABSTRACT We report on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the fast and blue optical transient (FBOT), AT 2018cow. At ∼62 Mpc, AT 2018cow is the first relatively nearby FBOT. The nature of AT 2018cow is not clear, although various hypotheses from a tidal disruption event to different kinds of supernovae have been suggested. It had a very fast rise time (3.5 d) and an almost featureless blue spectrum, although high photospheric velocities (40 000 km s−1) were suggested early on. The X-ray luminosity was very high, ∼1.4 × 1043 erg s−1, larger than those of ordinary supernovae (SNe), and more consistent with those of SNe associated with gamma-ray bursts. Variable hard X-ray emission hints at a long-lived ‘central engine.’ It was also fairly radio luminous, with a peak 8.4-GHz spectral luminosity of ∼4 × 1028 erg s−1 Hz−1, allowing us to make VLBI observations at ages between 22 and 287 d. We do not resolve AT 2018cow. Assuming a circularly symmetric source, our observations constrain the average apparent expansion velocity to be ${\lt}0.49\, c$ by t = 98 d (3σ limit). We also constrain the proper motion of AT 2018cow to be ${\lt}0.51\, c$. Since the radio emission generally traces the fastest ejecta, our observations make the presence of a long-lived relativistic jet with a lifetime of more than 1 monthmore »