Mission-critical wireless networks are being upgraded to 4G long-term evolution (LTE). As opposed to capacity, these networks require very high reliability and security as well as easy deployment and operation in the field. Wireless communication systems have been vulnerable to jamming, spoofing and other radio frequency attacks since the early days of analog systems. Although wireless systems have evolved, important security and reliability concerns still exist. This paper presents our methodology and results for testing 4G LTE operating in harsh signaling environments. We use software-defined radio technology and open-source software to develop a fully configurable protocol-aware interference waveform. We define several test cases that target the entire LTE signal or part of it to evaluate the performance of a mission-critical production LTE system. Our experimental results show that synchronization signal interference in LTE causes significant throughput degradation at low interference power. By dynamically evaluating the performance measurement counters, the k-nearest neighbor classification method can detect the specific RF signaling attack to aid in effective mitigation.
Wireless Attacks on Aircraft Instrument Landing Systems
Modern aircraft heavily rely on several wireless technologies for communications, control, and navigation. Researchers demonstrated vulnerabilities in many aviation systems. However, the resilience of the aircraft landing systems to adversarial wireless attacks have not yet been studied in the open literature, despite their criticality and the increasing availability of low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. In this paper, we investigate the vulnerability of aircraft instrument landing systems (ILS) to wireless attacks. We show the feasibility of spoofing ILS radio signals using commercially-available SDR, causing last-minute go around decisions, and even missing the landing zone in low-visibility scenarios. We demonstrate on aviation-grade ILS receivers that it is possible to fully and in fine-grain control the course deviation indicator as displayed by the ILS receiver, in real-time. We analyze the potential of both an overshadowing attack and a lower-power single-tone attack. In order to evaluate the complete attack, we develop a tightly-controlled closed-loop ILS spoofer that adjusts the adversary's transmitted signals as a function of the aircraft GPS location, maintaining power and deviation consistent with the adversary's target position, causing an undetected off-runway landing. We systematically evaluate the performance of the attack against an FAA certified flight-simulator (X-Plane)'s AI-based autoland feature and demonstrate more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 28th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 19)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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