Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has enabled procedures with increased precision and dexterity, but surgical robots are still open loop and require surgeons to work with a tele-operation console providing only limited visual feedback. In this setting, mechanical failures, software faults, or human errors might lead to adverse events resulting in patient complications or fatalities. We argue that impending adverse events could be detected and mitigated by applying context-specific safety constraints on the motions of the robot. We present a context-aware safety monitoring system which segments a surgical task into subtasks using kinematics data and monitors safety constraints specific to each subtask. To test our hypothesis about context specificity of safety constraints, we analyze recorded demonstrations of dry-lab surgical tasks collected from the JIGSAWS database as well as from experiments we conducted on a Raven II surgical robot. Analysis of the trajectory data shows that each subtask of a given surgical procedure has consistent safety constraints across multiple demonstrations by different subjects. Our preliminary results show that violations of these safety constraints lead to unsafe events, and there is often sufficient time between the constraint violation and the safety-critical event to allow for a corrective action.
Situating Robots in the Emergency Department
The emergency department (ED) is a safety-critical environ- ment in which mistakes can be deadly and providers are over- burdened. Well-designed and contextualized robots could be an asset in the ED by relieving providers of non-value added tasks and enabling them to spend more time on patient care. To support future work in this application domain, in this paper, we characterize ED staff workflow and patient experience, and identify key considerations for robots in the ED, including safety, physical and behavioral attributes, usability, and training. Then, we discuss the task representation and data needed to situate the robot in the ED, based on this do- main knowledge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on robot design for the ED that explicitly takes task acu- ity into account. This is an exciting area of research and we hope our work inspires further exploration into this problem domain.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- AAAI Spring Symposium on Applied AI in Healthcare: Safety, Community, and the Environment
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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