Reciprocal interactions between the cell nucleus and the extracellular matrix lead to macroscale tissue phenotype changes. However, little is known about how the extracellular matrix environment affects gene expression and cellular phenotype in the native tissue environment. Here, it is hypothesized that enzymatic disruption of the tissue matrix results in a softer tissue, affecting the stiffness of embedded cell and nuclear structures. The aim is to directly measure nuclear mechanics without perturbing the native tissue structure to better understand nuclear interplay with the cell and tissue microenvironments. To accomplish this, an atomic force microscopy needle‐tip probe technique that probes nuclear stiffness in cultured cells to measure the nuclear envelope and cell membrane stiffness within native tissue is expanded. This technique is validated by imaging needle penetration and subsequent repair of the plasma and nuclear membranes of HeLa cells stably expressing the membrane repair protein CHMP4B‐GFP. In the native tissue environment ex vivo, it is found that while enzymatic degradation of viable cartilage tissues with collagenase 3 (MMP‐13) and aggrecanase‐1 (ADAMTS‐4) decreased tissue matrix stiffness, cell and nuclear membrane stiffness is also decreased. Finally, the capability for cell and nucleus elastography using the AFM needle‐tip technique is demonstrated. These results demonstrate disruption of the native tissue environment that propagates to the plasma membrane and interior nuclear envelope structures of viable cells.
Tissues and engineered biomaterials exhibit exquisite local variation in stiffness that defines their function. Conventional elastography quantifies stiffness in soft (e.g. brain, liver) tissue, but robust quantification in stiff (e.g. musculoskeletal) tissues is challenging due to dissipation of high frequency shear waves. We describe new development of
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Scientific Reports
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Chemical exchange saturation transfer of glycosaminoglycans, gagCEST, is a quantitative MR technique that has potential for assessing cartilage proteoglycan content at field strengths of 7 T and higher. However, its utility at 3 T remains unclear. The objective of this work was to implement a rapid volumetric gagCEST sequence with higher gagCEST asymmetry at 3 T to evaluate its sensitivity to osteoarthritic changes in knee articular cartilage and in comparison with
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Abstract Purpose of Review
Interfacial tissue exists throughout the body at cartilage-to-bone (osteochondral interface) and tendon-to-bone (enthesis) interfaces. Healing of interfacial tissues is a current challenge in regenerative approaches because the interface plays a critical role in stabilizing and distributing the mechanical stress between soft tissues (e.g., cartilage and tendon) and bone. The purpose of this review is to identify new directions in the field of interfacial tissue development and physiology that can guide future regenerative strategies for improving post-injury healing.
Cues from interfacial tissue development may guide regeneration including biological cues such as cell phenotype and growth factor signaling; structural cues such as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, ECM, and cell alignment; and mechanical cues such as compression, tension, shear, and the stiffness of the cellular microenvironment.
In this review, we explore new discoveries in the field of interfacial biology related to ECM remodeling, cellular metabolism, and fate. Based on emergent findings across multiple disciplines, we lay out a framework for future innovations in the design of engineered strategies for interface regeneration. Many of the key mechanisms essential for interfacial tissue development and adaptation have high potential for improving outcomes in the clinic.
Healthy articular cartilage presents structural gradients defined by distinct zonal patterns through the thickness, which may be disrupted in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Analysis of textural patterns using quantitative MRI data may identify structural gradients of healthy or degenerating tissue that correlate with early osteoarthritis (OA).
To quantify spatial gradients and patterns in MRI data, and to probe new candidate biomarkers for early severity of OA.
Fourteen volunteers receiving total knee replacement surgery (eight males/two females/four unknown, average age ± standard deviation: 68.1 ± 9.6 years) and 10 patients from the OA Initiative (OAI) with radiographic OA onset (two males/eight females, average age ± standard deviation: 57.7 ± 9.4 years; initial Kellgren‐Lawrence [KL] grade: 0; final KL grade: 3 over the 10‐year study).
3.0‐T and 14.1‐T, biomechanics‐based displacement‐encoded imaging, fast spin echo, multi‐slice multi‐echo
We studied structure and strain in cartilage explants from volunteers receiving total knee replacement, or structure in cartilage of OAI patients with progressive OA. We calculated spatial gradients of quantitative MRI measures (eg, T2) normal to the cartilage surface to enhance zonal variations. We compared gradient values against histologically OA severity, conventional relaxometry, and/or KL grades.
Multiparametric linear regression for evaluation of the relationship between residuals of the mixed effects models and histologically determined OA severity scoring, with a significance threshold at
α= 0.05. Results
Gradients of individual relaxometry and biomechanics measures significantly correlated with OA severity, outperforming conventional relaxometry and strain metrics. In human explants, analysis of spatial gradients provided the strongest relationship to OA severity (
R 2= 0.627). Spatial gradients of T2 from OAI data identified variations in radiographic (KL Grade 2) OA severity in single subjects, while conventional T2 alone did not. Data Conclusion
Spatial gradients of quantitative MRI data may improve the predictive power of noninvasive imaging for early‐stage degeneration.