skip to main content

Title: Local adaptation and range boundary formation in response to complex environmental gradients across the geographical range of Clarkia xantiana ssp . xantiana
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Ecology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
95 to 107
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The efficient light-driven fuel production from homogeneous photocatalytic systems is one promising avenue towards an alternative energy economy. However, electron transfer from a conventional photosensitizer to a catalyst is short-range and necessitates spatial proximity between them. Here we show that energetic hot electrons generated by Mn-doped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) allow for long-range sensitization of Ni(cyclam)-based molecular catalysts, enabling photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to CO without requiring chemical linkages between the QDs and catalyst molecules. Our results demonstrate the potential of hot electron sensitization in simplifying the design of hybrid catalyst systems while improving photocatalytic activity. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract Aim

    Patterns of genetic diversity within species’ ranges can reveal important insights into effects of past climate on species’ biogeography and current population dynamics. While numerous biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain patterns of genetic diversity within species’ ranges, formal comparisons and rigorous statistical tests of these hypotheses remain rare. Here, we compared seven hypotheses for their abilities to describe the geographic pattern of two metrics of genetic diversity in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), a northern North American tree species.


    North America.


    Balsam poplar (Populus balsamiferaL.).


    We compared seven hypotheses, representing effects of past climate and current range position, for their ability to describe the geographic pattern of expected heterozygosity and per cent polymorphic loci across 85 populations of balsam poplar. We tested each hypothesis using spatial and non‐spatial least‐squares regression to assess the importance of spatial autocorrelation on model performance.


    We found that both expected heterozygosity and per cent polymorphic loci could best be explained by the current range position and genetic structure of populations within the contemporary range. Genetic diversity showed a clear gradient of being highest near the geographic and climatic range centre and lowest near range edges. Hypotheses accounting for the effects of past climate (e.g. past climatic suitability, distance from the southern edge), in contrast, had comparatively little support. Model ranks were similar among spatial and non‐spatial models, but residuals of all non‐spatial models were significantly autocorrelated, violating the assumption of independence in least‐squares regression.

    Main conclusions

    Our work adds strong support for the “Central‐Periphery Hypothesis” as providing a predictive framework for understanding the forces structuring genetic diversity across species’ ranges, and illustrates the value of applying a robust comparative model selection framework and accounting for spatial autocorrelation when comparing biogeographic models of genetic diversity.

    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Structural distortions such as cation off-centering are frustrated in the pyrochlore structure due to the triangular arrangement of cations on the pyrochlore lattice. This geometric constraint inhibits a transition from a paraelectric to ferroelectric phase in majority of pyrochlore oxide materials. Few pyrochlore materials can overcome this frustration and exhibit polar crystal structures, and unraveling the origin of such leads to the understanding of polarity in complex materials. Herein we hypothesize that frustration on the pyrochlore lattice can be relieved through A -site doping with rare earth cations that do not possess stereochemically active lone pairs. To assess if frustration is relieved, we have analyzed cation off-centering in various Bi 2−x RE xTi 2 O 7 ( RE = Y 3+ , Ho 3+ ) pyrochlores through neutron and X-ray total scattering. Motivated by known distortions from the pyrochlore literature, we present our findings that most samples show local distortions similar to the β-cristobalite structure. We additionally comment on the complexity of factors that play a role in the structural behavior, including cation size, bond valence, electronic structure, and magnetoelectronic interactions. We posit that the addition of magnetic cations on the pyrochlore lattice may play a role in an extension of the real-space correlation length of electric dipoles in the Bi-Ho series, and offer considerations for driving long-range polarity on the pyrochlore lattice. 
    more » « less