skip to main content

Title: Simultaneous Electrochemical Deposition of Cobalt Complex and Poly(pyrrole) Thin Films for Supercapacitor Electrodes

Supercapacitors are beneficial as energy storage devices and can obtain high capacitance values greater than conventional capacitors and high power densities compared to batteries. However, in order to improve upon the overall cost, energy density, and charge-discharge rates, the electrode material of supercapacitors needs to be fine-tuned with an inexpensive, high conducting source. We prepared a Co(III) complex and polypyrrole (PPy) composite thin films (CoN4-PPy) that was electrochemically deposited on the surface of a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate the superior performance of CoN4-PPy in charge storage in acidic electrolyte compared to alkaline and organic solutions. The CoN4-PPy material generated the highest amount of specific capacitance (up to 721.9 F/g) followed by Co salt and PPy (Co-PPy) material and PPy alone. Cyclic performance studies showed the excellent electrochemical stability of the CoN4-PPy film in the acidic medium. Simply electrochemically depositing an inexpensive Co(III) complex with a high electrically conducting polymer of PPy delivered a superior electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Therefore, the results indicate that novel thin films derived from Co(III) metal complex and PPy can store a large amount of energy and maintain high stability over many cycles, revealing its excellent potential in supercapacitor devices.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Nature Publishing Group
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Supercapacitor energy storage devices are well suited to meet the rigorous demands of future portable consumer electronics (PCEs) due to their high energy and power densities (i.e., longer battery-life and rapid charging, respectively) and superior operational lifetimes (10 times greater than lithium-ion batteries). To date, research efforts have been narrowly focused on improving the specific capacitance of these materials; however, emerging technologies are increasingly demanding competitive performance with regards to other criteria, including scalability of fabrication and electrochemical stability. In this regard, we developed a polyaniline (PANI) derivative that contains a carbazole unit copolymerized with 2,5-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (Cbz-PANI-1) and determined its optoelectronic properties, electrical conductivity, processability, and electrochemical stability. Importantly, the polymer exhibits good solubility in various solvents, which enables the use of scalable spray-coating and drop-casting methods to fabricate electrodes. Cbz-PANI-1 was used to fabricate electrodes for supercapacitor devices that exhibits a maximum areal capacitance of 64.8 mF cm–2 and specific capacitance of 319 F g–1 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm–2. Moreover, the electrode demonstrates excellent cyclic stability (≈ 83% of capacitance retention) over 1000 CV cycles. Additionally, we demonstrate the charge storage performance of Cbz-PANI-1 in a symmetrical supercapacitor device, which also exhibits excellent cyclic stabilitymore »(≈ 91% of capacitance retention) over 1000 charge–discharge cycles.« less
  2. Abstract

    Two-dimensional (2D) ternary materials recently generated interest in optoelectronics and energy-related applications, alongside their binary counterparts. To date, only a few naturally occurring layered 2D ternary materials have been explored. The plethora of benefits owed to reduced dimensionality prompted exploration of expanding non-layered ternary chalcogenides into the 2D realm. This work presents a templating method that uses 2D transition metal dichalcogenides as initiators to be converted into the corresponding ternary chalcogenide upon addition of copper, via a solution-phase synthesis, conducted in high boiling point solvents. The process starts with preparation of VSe2nanosheets, which are next converted into Cu3VSe4sulvanite nanosheets (NSs) which retain the 2D geometry while presenting an X-ray diffraction pattern identical with the one for the bulk Cu3VSe4. Both the scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy electron microscopy show the presence of quasi-2D morphology. Recent studies of the sulfur-containing sulvanite Cu3VS4highlight the presence of an intermediate bandgap, associated with enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance. The Cu3VSe4nanosheets reported herein exhibit multiple UV–Vis absorption peaks, related to the intermediate bandgaps similar to Cu3VS4and Cu3VSe4nanocrystals. To test the potential of Cu3VSe4NSs as an absorber for solar photovoltaic devices, Cu3VSe4NSs thin-films deposited on FTO were subjected to photoelectrochemical testing, showing p-type behavior andmore »stable photocurrents of up to ~ 0.036 mA/cm2. The photocurrent shows a ninefold increase in comparison to reported performance of Cu3VSe4nanocrystals. This proves that quasi-2D sulvanite nanosheets are amenable to thin-film deposition and could show superior PV performance in comparison to nanocrystal thin-films. The obtained electrical impedance spectroscopy signal of the Cu3VSeNSs-FTO based electrochemical cell fits an equivalent circuit with the circuit elements of solution resistance (Rs), charge-transfer resistance (Rct), double-layer capacitance (Cdl), and Warburg impedance (W). The estimated charge transfer resistance value of 300 Ω cm2obtained from the Nyquist plot provides an insight into the rate of charge transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface.

    « less
  3. A cobalt oxide (Co3O4)-decorated silicon carbide (SiC) nano-tree array (denoted as Co3O4/SiC NTA) electrode is synthesized, and it is investigated for use in micro-supercapacitor applications. Firstly, the well-standing SiC nanowires (NWs) are prepared by nickel (Ni)-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and then the thin layer of Co3O4 and the hierarchical Co3O4 nano-flower-clusters are, respectively, fabricated on the side-walls and the top side of the SiC NWs via electrodeposition. The deposition of Co3O4 on the SiC NWs benefits the charge transfer at the electrode/aqueous electrolyte interface due to its extremely hydrophilic surface characteristic after Co3O4 decoration. Furthermore, the Co3O4/SiC NTA electrode provides a directional charge transport route along the length of SiC nanowires owing to their well-standing architecture. By using the Co3O4/SiC NTA electrode for micro-supercapacitor application, the areal capacitance obtained from cyclic voltammetry measurement reaches 845 mF cm−2 at a 10 mV s−1 scan rate. Finally, the capacitance durability is also evaluated by the cycling test of cyclic voltammetry at a high scan rate of 150 mV s−1 for 2000 cycles, exhibiting excellent stability.
  4. ABSTRACT Compact-size kilohertz (kHz) AC-supercapacitors are being pursued for ripple current filtering and pulsed energy storage. However, their development is limited by a small areal capacitance density due to very thin electrode used for meeting frequency requirement. In our work, crosslinked carbon nanofiber aerogel (CCNFA) was investigated as freestanding electrode for kHz AC-supercapacitors with an areal capacitance density as large as 4.5 mF cm -2 at 120 Hz, 5-10 times larger than most reports. The CCNFA was obtained in a rapid plasma carbonization process of bacterial cellulose. The fabrication route adopted here is simple and straightforward, and the produced CCNFA electrode was found to be very suitable for high-frequency AC-supercapacitors. The operating voltage range of CCNFA based AC-supercapacitors can be expanded to 3 V by utilizing an organic electrolyte. In addition to AC-Supercapacitor performance, the morphology and material properties of bacterial cellulose aerogel and CCNFA were also reported.
  5. Generating oxygen vacancies (Vö) in vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) has been demonstrated as an effective approach to tailor its electrochemical properties. The present study investigates three different kinds of conductive polymer (CP = PPy, PEDOT, and PANI) coated V 2 O 5 nanofibers with Vö generated at the interface during the polymerization process. Surface Vö form a local electric field and promote the charge transfer kinetics of the resulting Vö-V 2 O 5 /CP nanocables, and the accompanying V 4+ and V 3+ ions may also catalyze the redox reactions and improve the supercapacitor performance. The differences and similarities of three different CP coatings have been compared and discussed, and are dependent on their polymerization conditions and coating thickness. The distribution of Vö in the surface layer and in the bulk has been elaborated and the corresponding effects on the electrochemical properties and supercapacitor performance have also been investigated. Vö-V 2 O 5 /CP can deliver a high capacity of up to 614 F g −1 at a current rate of 0.5 A g −1 and supercapacitors with Vö-V 2 O 5 /CP demonstrated excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles at a rate of 10 A gmore »−1 .« less