Dynamic community detection provides a coherent description of network clusters over time, allowing one to track the growth and death of communities as the network evolves. However, modularity maximization, a popular method for performing multilayer community detection, requires the specification of an appropriate null network as well as resolution and interlayer coupling parameters. Importantly, the ability of the algorithm to accurately detect community evolution is dependent on the choice of these parameters. In functional temporal networks, where evolving communities reflect changing functional relationships between network nodes, it is especially important that the detected communities reflect any state changes of the system. Here, we present analytical work suggesting that a uniform null network provides improved sensitivity to the detection of small evolving communities in temporal networks with positive edge weights bounded above by 1, such as certain types of correlation networks. We then propose a method for increasing the sensitivity of modularity maximization to state changes in nodal dynamics by modelling self-identity links between layers based on the self-similarity of the network nodes between layers. This method is more appropriate for functional temporal networks from both a modelling and mathematical perspective, as it incorporates the dynamic nature of network nodes. We motivate our method based on applications in neuroscience where network nodes represent neurons and functional edges represent similarity of firing patterns in time. We show that in simulated data sets of neuronal spike trains, updating interlayer links based on the firing properties of the neurons provides superior community detection of evolving network structure when groups of neurons change their firing properties over time. Finally, we apply our method to experimental calcium imaging data that monitors the spiking activity of hundreds of neurons to track the evolution of neuronal communities during a state change from the awake to anaesthetized state.
The quality of network clustering is often measured in terms of a commonly used metric known as “modularity”. Modularity compares the clusters found in a network to those present in a random graph (a “null model”). Unfortunately, modularity is somewhat ill suited for studying spatially embedded networks, since a random graph contains no basic geometrical notions. Regardless of their distance, the null model assigns a nonzero probability for an edge to appear between any pair of nodes. Here, we propose a variant of modularity that does not rely on the use of a null model. To demonstrate the essentials of our method, we analyze networks generated from granular ensemble. We show that our method performs better than the most commonly used Newman-Girvan (NG) modularity in detecting the best (physically transparent) partitions in those systems. Our measure further properly detects hierarchical structures, whenever these are present.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Scientific Reports
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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