Coupled groundwater flow and heat transport within hyporheic zones extensively affect water, energy, and solute exchange with surrounding sediments. The local and cumulative implications of this tightly coupled process strongly depend on characteristics of drivers (i.e., discharge and temperature of the water column) and modulators (i.e., hydraulic and thermal properties of the sediment). With this in mind, we perform a systematic numerical analysis of hyporheic responses to understand how the temporal variability of river discharge and temperature affect flow and heat transport within hyporheic zones. We identify typical time series of river discharge and temperature from gauging stations along the headwater region of Mississippi River Basin, which are characterized by different degrees of flow alteration, to drive a physics‐based model of the hyporheic exchange process. Our modeling results indicate that coupled groundwater flow and heat transport significantly affects the dynamic response of hyporheic zones, resulting in substantial differences in exchange rates and characteristic time scales of hyporheic exchange processes. We also find that the hyporheic zone dampens river temperature fluctuations increasingly with higher frequency of temperature fluctuations. This dampening effect depends on the system transport time scale and characteristics of river discharge and temperature variability. Furthermore, our results revealmore »
The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect is a phenomenon by which plastic slip in metallic materials becomes unstable, resulting in jerky flow and the onset of inhomogeneous deformation. The PLC effect is thought to be fundamentally caused by the dynamic interplay between dislocations and solute atoms. However, this interplay is almost always inaccessible experimentally due to the extremely fine length and time scales over which it occurs. In this paper, simulations of jerky flow in W-O interstitial solid solutions reveal three dynamic regimes emerging from the simulated strain rate-temperature space: one resembling standard solid solution strengthening, another one mimicking solute cloud formation, and a third one where dislocation/solute coevolution leads to jerky flow as a precursor of dynamic strain aging. The simulations are carried out in a stochastic framework that naturally captures rare events in a rigorous manner, providing atomistic resolution over diffusive time scales using no adjustable parameters.
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- Nature Communications
- Nature Publishing Group
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- National Science Foundation
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