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Title: Coupled Transmembrane Substrate Docking and Helical Unwinding in Intramembrane Proteolysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein

Intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs) play crucial roles in physiological and pathological processes, such as Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. However, the mechanisms of substrate recognition by I-CLiPs remain poorly understood. The aspartic I-CLiP presenilin is the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex, which releases the amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) through intramembrane proteolysis of the transmembrane domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APPTM). Here we used solution NMR to probe substrate docking of APPTM to the presenilin homologs (PSHs) MCMJR1 and MAMRE50, which cleaved APPTM in the NMR tube. Chemical shift perturbation (CSP) showed juxtamembrane regions of APPTM mediate its docking to MCMJR1. Binding of the substrate to I-CLiP decreased the magnitude of amide proton chemical shifts δHat the C-terminal half of the substrate APPTM, indicating that the docking to the enzyme weakens helical hydrogen bonds and unwinds the substrate transmembrane helix around the initial ε-cleavage site. The APPTM V44M substitution linked to familial AD caused more CSP and helical unwinding around the ε-cleavage site. MAMRE50, which cleaved APPTM at a higher rate, also caused more CSP and helical unwinding in APPTM than MCMJR1. Our data suggest that docking of the substrate transmembrane helix and helical unwinding is coupled in intramembrane proteolysis and FAD mutation modifies enzyme/substrate interaction, providing novel insights into the mechanisms of I-CLiPs and AD drug discovery.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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