Electromechanical coupling factor,
Radiation damage tolerance for a variety of ceramics at high temperatures depends on the material’s resistance to nucleation and growth of extended defects. Such processes are prevalent in ceramics employed for space, nuclear fission/fusion and nuclear waste environments. This report shows that random heterointerfaces in materials with sub-micron grains can act as highly efficient sinks for point defects compared to grain boundaries in single-phase materials. The concentration of dislocation loops in a radiation damage-prone phase (Al2O3) is significantly reduced when Al2O3is a component of a composite system as opposed to a single-phase system. These results present a novel method for designing exceptionally radiation damage tolerant ceramics at high temperatures with a stable grain size, without requiring extensive interfacial engineering or production of nanocrystalline materials.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Scientific Reports
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Electromechanical coupling factor,
k, of piezoelectric materials determines the conversion efficiency of mechanical to electrical energy or electrical to mechanical energy. Here, we provide an fundamental approach to design piezoelectric materials that provide near-ideal magnitude of k, via exploiting the electrocrystalline anisotropy through fabrication of grain-oriented or textured ceramics. Coupled phase field simulation and experimental investigation on <001> textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3ceramics illustrate that kcan reach same magnitude as that for a single crystal, far beyond the average value of traditional ceramics. To provide atomistic-scale understanding of our approach, we employ a theoretical model to determine the physical origin of kin perovskite ferroelectrics and find that strong covalent bonding between B-site cation and oxygen via d- phybridization contributes most towards the magnitude of k. This demonstration of near-ideal kvalue in textured ceramics will have tremendous impact on design of ultra-wide bandwidth, high efficiency, high power density, and high stability piezoelectric devices.
We present a review of the published experimental and simulation radiation damage results in Ga 2 O 3 . All of the polytypes of Ga 2 O 3 are expected to show similar radiation resistance as GaN and SiC, considering their average bond strengths. However, this is not enough to explain the orders of magnitude difference of the relative resistance to radiation damage of these materials compared to GaAs and dynamic annealing of defects is much more effective in Ga 2 O 3 . It is important to examine the effect of all types of radiation, given that Ga 2 O 3 devices will potentially be deployed both in space and terrestrial applications. Octahedral gallium monovacancies are the main defects produced under most radiation conditions because of the larger cross-section for interaction compared to oxygen vacancies. Proton irradiation introduces two main paramagnetic defects in Ga 2 O 3 , which are stable at room temperature. Charge carrier removal can be explained by Fermi-level pinning far from the conduction band minimum due to gallium interstitials (Ga i ), vacancies (V Ga ), and antisites (Ga O ). One of the most important parameters to establish is the carrier removal rate formore »
Single-crystalline membranes of functional materials enable the tuning of properties via extreme strain states; however, conventional routes for producing membranes require the use of sacrificial layers and chemical etchants, which can both damage the membrane and limit the ability to make them ultrathin. Here we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of the cubic Heusler compound GdPtSb on graphene-terminated Al2O3substrates. Despite the presence of the graphene interlayer, the Heusler films have epitaxial registry to the underlying sapphire, as revealed by x-ray diffraction, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The weak Van der Waals interactions of graphene enable mechanical exfoliation to yield free-standing GdPtSb membranes, which form ripples when transferred to a flexible polymer handle. Whereas unstrained GdPtSb is antiferromagnetic, measurements on rippled membranes show a spontaneous magnetic moment at room temperature, with a saturation magnetization of 5.2 bohr magneton per Gd. First-principles calculations show that the coupling to homogeneous strain is too small to induce ferromagnetism, suggesting a dominant role for strain gradients. Our membranes provide a novel platform for tuning the magnetic properties of intermetallic compounds via strain (piezomagnetism and magnetostriction) and strain gradients (flexomagnetism).
The discovery of oxide electronics is of increasing importance today as one of the most promising new technologies and manufacturing processes for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications such as next-generation displays, batteries, solar cells, memory devices, and photodetectors. The high potential use seen in oxide electronics is due primarily to their high carrier mobilities and their ability to be fabricated at low temperatures. However, since the majority of oxide semiconductors are n-type oxides, current applications are limited to unipolar devices, eventually developing oxide-based bipolar devices such as p-n diodes and complementary metal-oxide semiconductors. We have contributed to a wide range of oxide semiconductors and their electronics and optoelectronic device applications. Particularly, we have demonstrated n-type oxide-based thin film transistors (TFT), integrating In 2 O 3 -based n-type oxide semiconductors from binary cation materials to ternary cation species including InZnO, InGaZnO (IGZO), and InAlZnO. We have suggested channel/metallization contact strategies to achieve stable and high TFT performance[3, 4], identified vacancy-based native defect doping mechanisms, suggested interfacial buffer layers to promote charge injection capability, and established the role of third cation species on the carrier generation and carrier transport. More recently, we have reported facile manufacturing of p-type SnOx throughmore »
This work demonstrates the advantage of carrying out silicon ion (Si+) implantation at high temperatures for forming controlled heavily doped regions in gallium oxide. Room temperature (RT, 25 °C) and high temperature (HT, 600 °C) Si implants were carried out into MBE grown (010) β-Ga2O3films to form ∼350 nm deep Si-doped layers with average concentrations up to ∼1.2 × 1020cm−3. For such high concentrations, the RT sample was too resistive for measurement, but the HT samples had 82.1% Si dopant activation efficiency with a high sheet electron concentration of 3.3 × 1015 cm−2and an excellent mobility of 92.8 cm2/V·s at room temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that HT implantation prevents the formation of other Ga2O3phases and results in reduced structural defects and lattice damage. These results are highly encouraging for achieving ultra-low resistance heavily doped Ga2O3layers using ion implantation.