Due to its specificity, fluorescence microscopy has become a quintessential imaging tool in cell biology. However, photobleaching, phototoxicity, and related artifacts continue to limit fluorescence microscopy’s utility. Recently, it has been shown that artificial intelligence (AI) can transform one form of contrast into another. We present phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS), a combination of quantitative phase imaging and AI, which provides information about unlabeled live cells with high specificity. Our imaging system allows for automatic training, while inference is built into the acquisition software and runs in real-time. Applying the computed fluorescence maps back to the quantitative phase imaging (QPI) data, we measured the growth of both nuclei and cytoplasm independently, over many days, without loss of viability. Using a QPI method that suppresses multiple scattering, we measured the dry mass content of individual cell nuclei within spheroids. In its current implementation, PICS offers a versatile quantitative technique for continuous simultaneous monitoring of individual cellular components in biological applications where long-term label-free imaging is desirable.
Tissue biopsy evaluation in the clinic is in need of quantitative disease markers for diagnosis and, most importantly, prognosis. Among the new technologies, quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has demonstrated promise for histopathology because it reveals intrinsic tissue nanoarchitecture through the refractive index. However, a vast majority of past QPI investigations have relied on imaging unstained tissues, which disrupts the established specimen processing. Here we present color spatial light interference microscopy (cSLIM) as a new whole-slide imaging modality that performs interferometric imaging on stained tissue, with a color detector array. As a result, cSLIM yields in a single scan both the intrinsic tissue phase map and the standard color bright-field image, familiar to the pathologist. Our results on 196 breast cancer patients indicate that cSLIM can provide stain-independent prognostic information from the alignment of collagen fibers in the tumor microenvironment. The effects of staining on the tissue phase maps were corrected by a mathematical normalization. These characteristics are likely to reduce barriers to clinical translation for the new cSLIM technology.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Scientific Reports
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS) for measuring dry mass changes in sub-cellular compartments
PhaseStain: the digital staining of label-free quantitative phase microscopy images using deep learning
Using a deep neural network, we demonstrate a digital staining technique, which we term PhaseStain, to transform the quantitative phase images (QPI) of label-free tissue sections into images that are equivalent to the brightfield microscopy images of the same samples that are histologically stained. Through pairs of image data (QPI and the corresponding brightfield images, acquired after staining), we train a generative adversarial network and demonstrate the effectiveness of this virtual-staining approach using sections of human skin, kidney, and liver tissue, matching the brightfield microscopy images of the same samples stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Jones’ stain, and Masson’s trichrome stain, respectively. This digital-staining framework may further strengthen various uses of label-free QPI techniques in pathology applications and biomedical research in general, by eliminating the need for histological staining, reducing sample preparation related costs and saving time. Our results provide a powerful example of some of the unique opportunities created by data-driven image transformations enabled by deep learning.
Quantifying myelin content in brain tissue using color Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (cSLIM)Garini, Yuval (Ed.)Deficient myelination of the brain is associated with neurodevelopmental delays, particularly in high-risk infants, such as those born small in relation to their gestational age (SGA). New methods are needed to further study this condition. Here, we employ Color Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (cSLIM), which uses a brightfield objective and RGB camera to generate pathlength-maps with nanoscale sensitivity in conjunction with a regular brightfield image. Using tissue sections stained with Luxol Fast Blue, the myelin structures were segmented from a brightfield image. Using a binary mask, those portions were quantitatively analyzed in the corresponding phase maps. We first used the CLARITY method to remove tissue lipids and validate the sensitivity of cSLIM to lipid content. We then applied cSLIM to brain histology slices. These specimens are from a previous MRI study, which demonstrated that appropriate for gestational age (AGA) piglets have increased internal capsule myelination (ICM) compared to small for gestational age (SGA) piglets and that a hydrolyzed fat diet improved ICM in both. The identity of samples was blinded until after statistical analyses.
Fourier Imager Network (FIN): A deep neural network for hologram reconstruction with superior external generalization
Deep learning-based image reconstruction methods have achieved remarkable success in phase recovery and holographic imaging. However, the generalization of their image reconstruction performance to new types of samples never seen by the network remains a challenge. Here we introduce a deep learning framework, termed Fourier Imager Network (FIN), that can perform end-to-end phase recovery and image reconstruction from raw holograms of new types of samples, exhibiting unprecedented success in external generalization. FIN architecture is based on spatial Fourier transform modules that process the spatial frequencies of its inputs using learnable filters and a global receptive field. Compared with existing convolutional deep neural networks used for hologram reconstruction, FIN exhibits superior generalization to new types of samples, while also being much faster in its image inference speed, completing the hologram reconstruction task in ~0.04 s per 1 mm2of the sample area. We experimentally validated the performance of FIN by training it using human lung tissue samples and blindly testing it on human prostate, salivary gland tissue and Pap smear samples, proving its superior external generalization and image reconstruction speed. Beyond holographic microscopy and quantitative phase imaging, FIN and the underlying neural network architecture might open up various new opportunities to designmore »
We report what is to our knowledge the first use of Fourier phase microscopy (FPM) to estimate diameters of individual single-micrometer beads and to classify cells based upon changes in scatterer size distribution. FPM, a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) method, combines the planar illumination typically used in off-axis QPI (ideal for Mie theory analysis) with the common-path geometry typically used in on-axis QPI (ideal for optimizing angular scattering range). Low-spatial-frequency imaging artifacts inherent to FPM have negligible impact upon these angular-domain applications. The system is simple to align and stable, and requires no external reference beam. Angular scattering patterns obtained from single 1 µm polystyrene beads in glycerol (
) display unprecedented fidelity to Mie theory, produce diameter estimates consistent with the manufacturer’s specifications, and offer precision on the scale of tens of nanometers. Measurements of macrophages at different stages of antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis demonstrate the ability to detect changes in a cell’s scattering caused by the presence of phagocytosed material within.