The Pancharatnam–Berry phase is a geometric phase acquired over a cycle of parameters in the Hamiltonian governing the evolution of the system. Here, we report on the observation of the Pancharatnam–Berry phase in a condensate of indirect excitons (IXs) in a GaAs-coupled quantum well structure. The Pancharatnam–Berry phase is directly measured by detecting phase shifts of interference fringes in IX interference patterns. Correlations are found between the phase shifts, polarization pattern of IX emission, and onset of IX spontaneous coherence. The evolving Pancharatnam–Berry phase is acquired due to coherent spin precession in IX condensate and is observed with no decay over lengths exceeding 10 μm indicating long-range coherent spin transport.
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- Nature Communications
- Nature Publishing Group
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- National Science Foundation
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An indirect exciton (IX), also known as an interlayer exciton, is a bound pair of an electron and a hole confined in spatially separated layers. Due to their long lifetimes, IXs can cool below the temperature of quantum degeneracy. This provides an opportunity to experimentally study cold composite bosons. This article overviews our studies of cold IXs, presenting spontaneous coherence and Bose–Einstein condensation of IXs and phenomena observed in the IX condensate, including the spatially ordered exciton state, commensurability effect of exciton density wave, spin textures, Pancharatnam–Berry phase, long-range coherent spin transport, and interference dislocations.
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