Reproducible wafer-scale growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process with precise control over their properties is challenging due to a lack of understanding of the growth mechanisms spanning over several length scales and sensitivity of the synthesis to subtle changes in growth conditions. A multiscale computational framework coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Phase-Field (PF), and reactive Molecular Dynamics (MD) was developed – called the CPM model – and experimentally verified. Correlation between theoretical predictions and thorough experimental measurements for a Metal-Organic CVD (MOCVD)-grown WSe2model material revealed the full power of this computational approach. Large-area uniform 2D materials are synthesized via MOCVD, guided by computational analyses. The developed computational framework provides the foundation for guiding the synthesis of wafer-scale 2D materials with precise control over the coverage, morphology, and properties, a critical capability for fabricating electronic, optoelectronic, and quantum computing devices.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a powerful technique for synthesizing monolayer materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides. It has advantages over exfoliation techniques, including higher purity and the ability to control the chemistry of the products. However, controllable and reproducible synthesis of 2D materials using CVD is a challenge because of the complex growth process and its sensitivity to subtle changes in growth conditions, making it difficult to extend conclusions obtained in one CVD chamber to another. Here, we developed a multiscale model linking CVD control parameters to the morphology, size, and distribution of synthesized 2D materials. Its capabilities are experimentally validated via the systematic growth of MoS2. In particular, we coupled the reactor-scale governing heat and mass transport equations with the mesoscale phase-field equations for the growth morphology considering the variation of edge energies with the precursor concentration within the growth chamber. The predicted spatial distributions of 2D islands are statistically analyzed, and experiments are then performed to validate the predicted island morphology and distributions. It is shown that the model can be employed to predict and control the morphology and characteristics of synthesized 2D materials.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- npj 2D Materials and Applications
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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