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Title: Light availability and rhizobium variation interactively mediate the outcomes of legume–rhizobium symbiosis
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Award ID(s):
1832042 1027253
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
American Journal of Botany
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
229 to 238
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can identify genetic variants responsible for naturally occurring and quantitative phenotypic variation. Association studies therefore provide a powerful complement to approaches that rely on de novo mutations for characterizing gene function. Although bacteria should be amenable to GWAS, few GWAS have been conducted on bacteria, and the extent to which nonindependence among genomic variants (e.g., linkage disequilibrium [LD]) and the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits will affect GWAS performance is unclear. We apply association analyses to identify candidate genes underlying variation in 20 biochemical, growth, and symbiotic phenotypes among 153 strains of Ensifer meliloti . For 11 traits, we find genotype-phenotype associations that are stronger than expected by chance, with the candidates in relatively small linkage groups, indicating that LD does not preclude resolving association candidates to relatively small genomic regions. The significant candidates show an enrichment for nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over gene presence-absence variation (PAV), and for five traits, candidates are enriched in large linkage groups, a possible signature of epistasis. Many of the variants most strongly associated with symbiosis phenotypes were in genes previously identified as being involved in nitrogen fixation or nodulation. For other traits, apparently strong associations were not stronger thanmore »the range of associations detected in permuted data. In sum, our data show that GWAS in bacteria may be a powerful tool for characterizing genetic architecture and identifying genes responsible for phenotypic variation. However, careful evaluation of candidates is necessary to avoid false signals of association. IMPORTANCE Genome-wide association analyses are a powerful approach for identifying gene function. These analyses are becoming commonplace in studies of humans, domesticated animals, and crop plants but have rarely been conducted in bacteria. We applied association analyses to 20 traits measured in Ensifer meliloti , an agriculturally and ecologically important bacterium because it fixes nitrogen when in symbiosis with leguminous plants. We identified candidate alleles and gene presence-absence variants underlying variation in symbiosis traits, antibiotic resistance, and use of various carbon sources; some of these candidates are in genes previously known to affect these traits whereas others were in genes that have not been well characterized. Our results point to the potential power of association analyses in bacteria, but also to the need to carefully evaluate the potential for false associations.« less
  2. Abstract Under nitrogen starvation, most legume plants form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. The bacteria induce the formation of a novel organ called the nodule in which rhizobia reside as intracellular symbionts and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. During this symbiosis, miRNAs are essential for coordinating the various plant processes required for nodule formation and function. miRNAs are non-coding, endogenous RNA molecules, typically 20–24 nucleotides long, that negatively regulate the expression of their target mRNAs. Some miRNAs can move systemically within plant tissues through the vascular system, which mediates, for example, communication between the stem/leaf tissues and the roots. In this review, we summarize the growing number of miRNAs that function during legume nodulation focusing on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, and two important legume crops, soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This regulation impacts a variety of physiological processes including hormone signaling and spatial regulation of gene expression. The role of mobile miRNAs in regulating legume nodule number is also highlighted.
  3. Abstract

    Bacteriophages play significant roles in the composition, diversity, and evolution of bacterial communities. Despite their importance, it remains unclear how phage diversity and phage-host interactions are spatially structured. Local adaptation may play a key role. Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, known as rhizobia, have been shown to locally adapt to domesticated common bean at its Mesoamerican and Andean sites of origin. This may affect phage-rhizobium interactions. However, knowledge about the diversity and coevolution of phages with their respective Rhizobium populations is lacking. Here, through the study of four phage-Rhizobium communities in Mexico and Argentina, we show that both phage and host diversity is spatially structured. Cross-infection experiments demonstrated that phage infection rates were higher overall in sympatric rhizobia than in allopatric rhizobia except for one Argentinean community, indicating phage local adaptation and host maladaptation. Phage-host interactions were shaped by the genetic identity and geographic origin of both the phage and the host. The phages ranged from specialists to generalists, revealing a nested network of interactions. Our results suggest a key role of local adaptation to resident host bacterial communities in shaping the phage genetic and phenotypic composition, following a similar spatial pattern of diversity and coevolution to that in the host.