- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 11225 to 11237
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Single-molecule visualization of human RECQ5 interactions with single-stranded DNA recombination intermediatesAbstract RECQ5 is one of five RecQ helicases found in humans and is thought to participate in homologous DNA recombination by acting as a negative regulator of the recombinase protein RAD51. Here, we use kinetic and single molecule imaging methods to monitor RECQ5 behavior on various nucleoprotein complexes. Our data demonstrate that RECQ5 can act as an ATP-dependent single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) motor protein and can translocate on ssDNA that is bound by replication protein A (RPA). RECQ5 can also translocate on RAD51-coated ssDNA and readily dismantles RAD51–ssDNA filaments. RECQ5 interacts with RAD51 through protein–protein contacts, and disruption of this interface through a RECQ5–F666A mutation reduces translocation velocity by ∼50%. However, RECQ5 readily removes the ATP hydrolysis-deficient mutant RAD51–K133R from ssDNA, suggesting that filament disruption is not coupled to the RAD51 ATP hydrolysis cycle. RECQ5 also readily removes RAD51–I287T, a RAD51 mutant with enhanced ssDNA-binding activity, from ssDNA. Surprisingly, RECQ5 can bind to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but it is unable to translocate. Similarly, RECQ5 cannot dismantle RAD51-bound heteroduplex joint molecules. Our results suggest that the roles of RECQ5 in genome maintenance may be regulated in part at the level of substrate specificity.
Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes). This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation).
Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses.
Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against) and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5%)more »
Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.
Multiprotein E. coli SSB–ssDNA complex shows both stable binding and rapid dissociation due to interprotein interactionsAbstract Escherichia coli SSB (EcSSB) is a model single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein critical in genome maintenance. EcSSB forms homotetramers that wrap ssDNA in multiple conformations to facilitate DNA replication and repair. Here we measure the binding and wrapping of many EcSSB proteins to a single long ssDNA substrate held at fixed tensions. We show EcSSB binds in a biphasic manner, where initial wrapping events are followed by unwrapping events as ssDNA-bound protein density passes critical saturation and high free protein concentration increases the fraction of EcSSBs in less-wrapped conformations. By destabilizing EcSSB wrapping through increased substrate tension, decreased substrate length, and protein mutation, we also directly observe an unstable bound but unwrapped state in which ∼8 nucleotides of ssDNA are bound by a single domain, which could act as a transition state through which rapid reorganization of the EcSSB–ssDNA complex occurs. When ssDNA is over-saturated, stimulated dissociation rapidly removes excess EcSSB, leaving an array of stably-wrapped complexes. These results provide a mechanism through which otherwise stably bound and wrapped EcSSB tetramers are rapidly removed from ssDNA to allow for DNA maintenance and replication functions, while still fully protecting ssDNA over a wide range of protein concentrations.
The Effects of Packaged, but Misguided, Single-Stranded DNA Genomes Are Transmitted to the Outer Surface of the ϕX174 CapsidSandri-Goldin, Rozanne M. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Most icosahedral viruses condense their genomes into volumetrically constrained capsids. However, concurrent genome biosynthesis and packaging are specific to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. ssDNA genome packaging combines elements found in both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssRNA systems. Similar to dsDNA viruses, the genome is packaged into a preformed capsid. Like ssRNA viruses, there are numerous capsid-genome associations. In ssDNA microviruses, the DNA-binding protein J guides the genome between 60 icosahedrally ordered DNA binding pockets. It also partially neutralizes the DNA’s negative phosphate backbone. ϕX174-related microviruses, such as G4 and α3, have J proteins that differ in length and charge organization. This suggests that interchanging J proteins could alter the path used to guide DNA in the capsid. Previously, a ϕXG4J chimera, in which the ϕX174 J gene was replaced with the G4 gene, was characterized. It displayed lethal packaging defects, which resulted in procapsids being removed from productive assembly. Here, we report the characterization of another inviable chimera, ϕXα3J. Unlike ϕXG4J, ϕXα3J efficiently packaged DNA but produced noninfectious particles. These particles displayed a reduced ability to attach to host cells, suggesting that internal DNA organization could distort the capsid’s outer surface. Mutations that restored viability altered J-coat protein contactmore »
Structural dynamics of E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein reveal DNA wrapping and unwrapping pathways
Escherichia coli single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) protein mediates genome maintenance processes by regulating access to ssDNA. This homotetrameric protein wraps ssDNA in multiple distinct binding modes that may be used selectively in different DNA processes, and whose detailed wrapping topologies remain speculative. Here, we used single-molecule force and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate E. coli SSB binding to ssDNA. Stretching a single ssDNA-SSB complex reveals discrete states that correlate with known binding modes, the likely ssDNA conformations and diffusion dynamics in each, and the kinetic pathways by which the protein wraps ssDNA and is dissociated. The data allow us to construct an energy landscape for the ssDNA-SSB complex, revealing that unwrapping energy costs increase the more ssDNA is unraveled. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism by which proteins gain access to ssDNA bound by SSB, as demonstrated by experiments in which SSB is displaced by the E. coli recombinase RecA.