skip to main content


Title: The effect of nozzle internal flow on spray atomization
The effect of nozzle surface features on the overall atomization behavior of a liquid jet is analyzed in the present computational work by adopting three representative geometries, namely a single X-ray tomography scan of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray A nozzle (Unprocessed), a spline reconstruction of multiple scans (Educated), and a purely external flow configuration. The latter configuration is often used in fundamental jet atomization studies. Numerically, the two-phase flow is solved based on algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology utilizing the OpenFoam solver, interFoam. Quantitative characterization of the surface features concerning the first two geometries reveals that while both of them have similar levels of cylindrical asymmetries, the nozzle configuration pertaining to the Unprocessed geometry has much larger surface features along the streamwise direction than the Educated geometry. This produces for the Unprocessed configuration a much larger degree of non-axial velocity components in the flow exiting the orifice and also a more pronounced disturbance of the liquid surface in the first few diameters downstream of the nozzle orifice. Furthermore, this heightened level of surface destabilization generates a much shorter intact liquid core length, that is, it produces faster primary atomization. The surprising aspect of this finding is that the differences between the Unprocessed and Educated geometries are of [Formula: see text](1) μm, and they are able to produce [Formula: see text](1) mm effects in the intact liquid core length. In spite of more pronounced atomization for the Unprocessed geometry, the magnitude of the turbulent liquid kinetic energy is roughly the same as the Educated geometry. This highlights the important role of mean field quantities, in particular, non-axial velocity components, in precipitating primary atomization. At the other end of the spectrum, the external-only configuration has the mildest level of surface disturbances in the near field resulting in the longest intact liquid core length.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1703825
NSF-PAR ID:
10163762
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Volume:
21
Issue:
1
ISSN:
1468-0874
Page Range / eLocation ID:
55 to 72
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    We study the enhanced atomization of viscous liquids by employing a novel two-fluid atomizer. The nozzle establishes a countercurrent flow configuration in which the gas and liquid are directed in opposite directions, establishing a two-phase mixing layer. Detailed measurements of droplet size distributions were carried out using laser shadowgraphy, along with high speed flow visualization. The measurements suggest that the liquid emerges as a spray with little further secondary atomization. The performance of this nozzle is compared to the ‘flow-blurring’ nozzle studied by other investigators for four test liquids of viscosity ranging from 1 to 133.5 mPa.s. The counterflow nozzle produces a spray whose characteristics are relatively insensitive to fluid viscosity over the range studied, for gas-liquid mass flow ratios between 0.25 and 1. To gain insight into the mixing process inside the nozzle, simulations are carried out using an Eulerian-Eulerian Volume of Fluid (VoF) approach for representative experimental conditions. The simulation reveals the detailed process of self-sustained flow oscillations and the physical mechanism that generate liquid filaments and final droplets. 
    more » « less
  2. Flow-blurring atomization is an innovative twin-fluid atomization approach that has demonstrated superior effectiveness in producing fine sprays compared to traditional airblast atomization methods. In flow-blurring atomizers, the high-speed gas flow is directed perpendicular to the liquid jet. Under specific geometric and physical conditions, the gas penetrates back into the liquid nozzle, resulting in a highly unsteady bubbly two-phase mixing zone. Despite the remarkable atomization performance of flow-blurring atomizers, the underlying dynamics of the two-phase flows and breakup mechanisms within the liquid nozzle remain poorly understood, primarily due to the challenges in experimental measurements of flow details. In this study, detailed interface-resolved numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the two-phase flows generated by a planar flow-blurring atomizer. By varying key dimensionless parameters, including the dynamic-pressure ratio, density ratio, and Weber number, over wide ranges, we aim to comprehensively characterize their effects on the two-phaseflow regimes and breakup dynamics.

     
    more » « less
  3. In the present work, we model and simulate the injection and atomization of a gasoline surrogate jet by detailed numerical simulation. The surrogate fuel has a low volatility and thus no phase change occurs in the process. The nozzle geometry and operation conditions are similar to the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) “Spray G”. We focus the present study on the near field where inter-jet interaction is of secondary importance. Therefore, we have considered only one of the eight jets in the original Spray G injectors. The liquid is injected from the inlet into a chamber with stagnant gas. A tangential component of velocity is introduced at the inlet to mimic the complex internal flow in the original spray G injector, which leads to the jet deflection. A parametric study on the inlet tangential velocity is carried out to identify the proper value to be used. Simulations are performed with the multiphase flow solver, Basilisk, on an adaptive mesh. The gas-liquid interface is captured by the volume-of-fluid method. The numerical results are compared to the X-ray experimental data for the jet deflection angle and the temporal variation of penetration length. The vortex dynamics in the near field are also presented by the assistance of the vortex-identification criterion. 
    more » « less
  4. AIAA (Ed.)
    With a focus on improving mixing at extreme flow velocity conditions, this paper presents planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies on the flowfield of a high-speed, pulsed co-flow system integrated with a high-frequency actuator operating at 15 kHz. This active injection system delivers a supersonic pulsed actuation air jet at the inner core of the co-axial nozzle that provides large mean and fluctuating velocity profiles in the shear layers of a fluid stream injected surrounding the core through an annular nozzle. The instantaneous velocity, vorticity, and acetone concentration fields of the injector in three distinct modes of operation – pulsed actuation, steady actuation, and without actuation -are presented. The high-frequency streamwise vortices and shockwaves tailored to the mean flow significantly enhanced supersonic flow mixing between the fluids compared to the steady co-axial configuration operating at the same input pressure. The study analyzes the mixing and dynamic characteristics of this active co-axial injection system, which has the potential for supersonic mixing applications. 
    more » « less
  5. Understanding the process of primary and secondary atomization in liquid jets is crucial in describing spray distribution and droplet geometry for industrial applications and is essential in the development of physics-based low-fidelity atomization models. Significant advances in numerical modelling and computational resources allows research groups to conduct detailed numerical simulations of these flows. However, the large size of the datasets produced by highfidelity simulations limit researchers’ ability to analyze them. Consequently, the process of a coherent liquid core breaking into droplets has not been analyzed in simulation results even though a complete description of the jet dynamics exists. The present work applies a droplet physics extraction technique to high-fidelity simulations to track breakup events and data associated with the local flow. The data on the atomization process is stored in a Neo4j graphical database providing an easily accessible format. Results will provide a robust, quantitative description of the process of atomization and the details on the local flow field will be useful in the development of low-fidelity atomization models. 
    more » « less