- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Functional Materials
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
In Situ Formation of Polymer-Inorganic Solid-Electrolyte Interphase for Stable Polymeric Solid-State Lithium Metal BatteriesComposite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) for solid-state Li metal batteries (SSLBs) still suffer from gradually increased interface resistance and unconstrained Li dendrite growth. Herein, we addressed the challenges by designing a LiF-rich inorganic solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) through introducing a fluoride-salt concentrated interlayer on CPE film. The rigid and flexible CPE helps accommodate the volume change of electrodes, while the polymeric high-concentrated electrolyte (PHCE) surface-layer regulates Li-ion flux due to the formation of a stable LiF-rich SEI via anion reduction. The designed CPE-PHCE presents enhanced ionic conductivity and high oxidation stability of > 5.0V (vs. Li/Li+). What’s more, it dramatically reduces the interfacial resistance and achieves a high critical current density of 4.5 mA cm-2 for dendrite-free cycling. The SSLBs, fabricated with thin CPE-PHCE membrane (< 100 μm) and Co-free LiNiO2 cathode, exhibit exceptional electrochemical performance and long cycling stability. This approach of SEI design can also be applied to other types of batteries.
Dusastre, Vincent (Ed.)A critical challenge for next-generation lithium-based batteries lies in development of electrolytes that enable thermal safety along with use of high-energy-density electrodes. We describe molecular ionic composite (MIC) electrolytes based on an aligned liquid crystalline polymer combined with ionic liquids and concentrated Li salt. This high strength (200 MPa) and non-flammable solid electrolyte possesses outstanding Li+ conductivity (1 mS·cm-1 at 25 °C) and electrochemical stability (5.6 V vs Li|Li+) while suppressing dendrite growth and exhibiting low interfacial resistance (32 Ω·cm2) and overpotentials (≤ 120 mV @ 1 mA·cm-2) during Li symmetric cell cycling. A heterogeneous salt doping process modifies a locally ordered polymer-ion assembly to incorporate an inter-grain network filled with defective LiFSI & LiBF4 nanocrystals, strongly enhancing Li+ conduction. This modular material fabrication platform shows promise for safe and high-energy-density energy storage and conversion applications, incorporating the fast transport of ceramic-like conductors with the superior flexibility of polymer electrolytes.
Designing electrolytes with polymerlike glass-forming properties and fast ion transport at low temperatures
In the presence of Lewis acid salts, the cyclic ether, dioxolane (DOL), is known to undergo ring-opening polymerization inside electrochemical cells to form solid-state polymer batteries with good interfacial charge-transport properties. Here we report that LiNO3, which is unable to ring-open DOL, possesses a previously unknown ability to coordinate with and strain DOL molecules in bulk liquids, completely arresting their crystallization. The strained DOL electrolytes exhibit physical properties analogous to amorphous polymers, including a prominent glass transition, elevated moduli, and low activation entropy for ion transport, but manifest unusually high, liquidlike ionic conductivities (e.g., 1 mS/cm) at temperatures as low as −50 °C. Systematic electrochemical studies reveal that the electrolytes also promote reversible cycling of Li metal anodes with high Coulombic efficiency (CE) on both conventional planar substrates (1 mAh/cm2over 1,000 cycles with 99.1% CE; 3 mAh/cm2over 300 cycles with 99.2% CE) and unconventional, nonplanar/three-dimensional (3D) substrates (10 mAh/cm2over 100 cycles with 99.3% CE). Our finding that LiNO3promotes reversibility of Li metal electrodes in liquid DOL electrolytes by a physical mechanism provides a possible solution to a long-standing puzzle in the field about the versatility of LiNO3salt additives for enhancing reversibility of Li metal electrodes in essentially any aprotic liquidmore »
Universal Cathode Design Strategies to Engineer Cathode Electrolyte Interfaces for High Performance All-Solid-State BatteriesMetal-ion batteries (e.g., lithium and sodium ion batteries) are the promising power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grids. Recent metal-ion batteries with organic liquid electrolytes still suffer from safety issues regarding inflammability and insufficient lifetime.1 As the next generation energy storage devices, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have promising potentials for the improved safety, higher energy density, and longer cycle life than conventional Li-ion batteries.2 The nonflammable solid electrolytes (SEs), where only Li ions are mobile, could prevent battery combustion and explosion since the side reactions that cause safety issues as well as degradation of the battery performance are largely suppressed. However, their practical application is hampered by the high resistance arising at the solid–solid electrode–electrolyte interface (including cathode-electrolyte interface and anode-electrolyte interface).3 Several methods have been introduced to optimize the contact capability as well as the electrochemical/chemical stability between the metal anodes (i.e.: Li and Na) and the SEs, which exhibited decent results in decreasing the charge transfer resistance and broadening the range of the stable energy window (i.e., lowing the chemical potential of metal anode below the highest occupied molecular orbital of the SEs).4 Nevertheless, mitigation for the cathode in ASSB is tardily developed because: (1) themore »
Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolytes from ionic liquid-functionalized octasilsesquioxane for lithium metal batteriesThe use of highly conductive solid-state electrolytes to replace conventional liquid organic electrolytes enables radical improvements in the reliability, safety and performance of lithium batteries. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new class of nonflammable solid electrolytes based on the grafting of ionic liquids onto octa-silsesquioxane. The electrolyte exhibits outstanding room-temperature ionic conductivity (∼4.8 × 10 −4 S cm −1 ), excellent electrochemical stability (up to 5 V relative to Li + /Li) and high thermal stability. All-solid-state Li metal batteries using the prepared electrolyte membrane are successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiencies at ambient temperature. The good cycling stability of the electrolyte against lithium has been demonstrated. This work provides a new platform for the development of solid polymer electrolytes for application in room-temperature lithium batteries.