Our current knowledge of host–virus interactions in biofilms is limited to computational predictions based on laboratory experiments with a small number of cultured bacteria. However, natural biofilms are diverse and chiefly composed of uncultured bacteria and archaea with no viral infection patterns and lifestyle predictions described to date. Herein, we predict the first DNA sequence-based host–virus interactions in a natural biofilm. Using single-cell genomics and metagenomics applied to a hot spring mat of the Cone Pool in Mono County, California, we provide insights into virus–host range, lifestyle and distribution across different mat layers. Thirty-four out of 130 single cells contained at least one viral contig (26%), which, together with the metagenome-assembled genomes, resulted in detection of 59 viruses linked to 34 host species. Analysis of single-cell amplification kinetics revealed a lack of active viral replication on the single-cell level. These findings were further supported by mapping metagenomic reads from different mat layers to the obtained host–virus pairs, which indicated a low copy number of viral genomes compared to their hosts. Lastly, the metagenomic data revealed high layer specificity of viruses, suggesting limited diffusion to other mat layers. Taken together, these observations indicate that in low mobility environments with high more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
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- Journal Name:
- The ISME Journal
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 2527-2541
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Phage–host associations play important roles in microbial communities. But in natural communities, as opposed to culture-based lab studies where phages are discovered and characterized metagenomically, their hosts are generally not known. Several programs have been developed for predicting which phage infects which host based on various sequence similarity measures or machine learning approaches. These are often based on whole viral and host genomes, but in metagenomics-based studies, we rarely have whole genomes but rather must rely on contigs that are sometimes as short as hundreds of bp long. Therefore, we need programs that predict hosts of phage contigs on the basis of these short contigs. Although most existing programs can be applied to metagenomic datasets for these predictions, their accuracies are generally low. Here, we develop ContigNet, a convolutional neural network-based model capable of predicting phage–host matches based on relatively short contigs, and compare it to previously published VirHostMatcher (VHM) and WIsH.
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Availability and implementation
The source code of ContigNet and related datasets can be downloaded from https://github.com/tianqitang1/ContigNet.
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In this study, we introduce the
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