skip to main content

Title: Deriving Metamodels to Relate Machine Learning Quality to Repository Characteristics in the Context of Additive Manufacturing
The widespread growth of additive manufacturing, a field with a complex informatic “digital thread”, has helped fuel the creation of design repositories, where multiple users can upload distribute, and download a variety of candidate designs for a variety of situations. Additionally, advancements in additive manufacturing process development, design frameworks, and simulation are increasing what is possible to fabricate with AM, further growing the richness of such repositories. Machine learning offers new opportunities to combine these design repository components’ rich geometric data with their associated process and performance data to train predictive models capable of automatically assessing build metrics related to AM part manufacturability. Although design repositories that can be used to train these machine learning constructs are expanding, our understanding of what makes a particular design repository useful as a machine learning training dataset is minimal. In this study we use a metamodel to predict the extent to which individual design repositories can train accurate convolutional neural networks. To facilitate the creation and refinement of this metamodel, we constructed a large artificial design repository, and subsequently split it into sub-repositories. We then analyzed metadata regarding the size, complexity, and diversity of the sub-repositories for use as independent variables predicting accuracy more » and the required training computational effort for training convolutional neural networks. The networks each predict one of three additive manufacturing build metrics: (1) part mass, (2) support material mass, and (3) build time. Our results suggest that metamodels predicting the convolutional neural network coefficient of determination, as opposed to computational effort, were most accurate. Moreover, the size of a design repository, the average complexity of its constituent designs, and the average and spread of design spatial diversity were the best predictors of convolutional neural network accuracy. « less
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
ASME 2020 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Machine learning can be used to automate common or time-consuming engineering tasks for which sufficient data already exist. For instance, design repositories can be used to train deep learning algorithms to assess component manufacturability; however, methods to determine the suitability of a design repository for use with machine learning do not exist. We provide an initial investigation toward identifying such a method using “artificial” design repositories to experimentally test the extent to which altering properties of the dataset impacts the assessment precision and generalizability of neural networks trained on the data. For this experiment, we use a 3D convolutional neural network to estimate quantitative manufacturing metrics directly from voxel-based component geometries. Additive manufacturing (AM) is used as a case study because of the recent growth of AM-focused design repositories such as GrabCAD and Thingiverse that are readily accessible online. In this study, we focus only on material extrusion, the dominant consumer AM process, and investigate three AM build metrics: (1) part mass, (2) support material mass, and (3) build time. Additionally, we compare the convolutional neural network accuracy to that of a baseline multiple linear regression model. Our results suggest that training on design repositories with less standardized orientationmore »and position resulted in more accurate trained neural networks and that orientation-dependent metrics were harder to estimate than orientation-independent metrics. Furthermore, the convolutional neural network was more accurate than the baseline linear regression model for all build metrics.« less
  2. The goal of this work to mitigate flaws in metal parts produced from laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) process. As a step towards this goal, the objective of this work is to predict the build quality of a part as it is being printed via deep learning of in-situ layer-wise images obtained from an optical camera instrumented in the LPBF machine. To realize this objective, we designed a set of thin-wall features (fins) from Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) material with varying length-to-thickness ratio. These thin-wall test parts were printed under three different build orientations and in-situ images of their top surface were acquired during the process. The parts were examined offline using X-ray computed tomography (XCT), and their build quality was quantified in terms of statistical features, such as the thickness and consistency of its edges. Subsequently, a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained to predict the XCT-derived statistical quality features using the layer-wise optical images of the thin-wall part as inputs. The statistical correlation between CNN-based predictions and XCT-observed quality measurements exceeds 85%. This work has two outcomes consequential to the sustainability of additive manufacturing: (1) It provides practitioners with a guideline for building thin-wallmore »features with minimal defects, and (2) the high correlation between the offline XCT measurements and in-situ sensor-based quality metrics substantiates the potential for applying deep learning approaches for the real-time prediction of build flaws in LPBF.« less
  3. Abstract Laser-based additive manufacturing (LBAM) provides unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complicated parts for a wide range of engineering applications. Melt pool is one of the most important signatures in LBAM and is indicative of process anomalies and part defects. High-speed thermal images of the melt pool captured during LBAM make it possible for in situ melt pool monitoring and porosity prediction. This paper aims to broaden current knowledge of the underlying relationship between process and porosity in LBAM and provide new possibilities for efficient and accurate porosity prediction. We present a deep learning-based data fusion method to predict porosity in LBAM parts by leveraging the measured melt pool thermal history and two newly created deep learning neural networks. A PyroNet, based on Convolutional Neural Networks, is developed to correlate in-process pyrometry images with layer-wise porosity; an IRNet, based on Long-term Recurrent Convolutional Networks, is developed to correlate sequential thermal images from an infrared camera with layer-wise porosity. Predictions from PyroNet and IRNet are fused at the decision-level to obtain a more accurate prediction of layer-wise porosity. The model fidelity is validated with LBAM Ti–6Al–4V thin-wall structure. This is the first work that manages to fuse pyrometermore »data and infrared camera data for metal additive manufacturing (AM). The case study results based on benchmark datasets show that our method can achieve high accuracy with relatively high efficiency, demonstrating the applicability of the method for in situ porosity detection in LBAM.« less
  4. Modern digital manufacturing processes, such as additive manufacturing, are cyber-physical in nature and utilize complex, process-specific simulations for both design and manufacturing. Although computational simulations can be used to optimize these complex processes, they can take hours or days--an unreasonable cost for engineering teams leveraging iterative design processes. Hence, more rapid computational methods are necessary in areas where computation time presents a limiting factor. When existing data from historical examples is plentiful and reliable, supervised machine learning can be used to create surrogate models that can be evaluated orders of magnitude more rapidly than comparable finite element approaches. However, for applications that necessitate computationally- intensive simulations, even generating the training data necessary to train a supervised machine learning model can pose a significant barrier. Unsupervised methods, such as physics- informed neural networks, offer a shortcut in cases where training data is scarce or prohibitive. These novel neural networks are trained without the use of potentially expensive labels. Instead, physical principles are encoded directly into the loss function. This method substantially reduces the time required to develop a training dataset, while still achieving the evaluation speed that is typical of supervised machine learning surrogate models. We propose a new method formore »stochastically training and testing a convolutional physics-informed neural network using the transient 3D heat equation- to model temperature throughout a solid object over time. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to a transient thermal analysis model of the powder bed fusion manufacturing process.« less
  5. Abstract In additive manufacturing of metal parts, the ability to accurately predict the extremely variable temperature field in detail, and relate it quantitatively to structure and properties, is a key step in predicting part performance and optimizing process design. In this work, a finite element simulation of the directed energy deposition (DED) process is used to predict the space- and time-dependent temperature field during the multi-layer build process for Inconel 718 walls. The thermal model results show good agreement with dynamic infrared images captured in situ during the DED builds. The relationship between predicted cooling rate, microstructural features, and mechanical properties is examined, and cooling rate alone is found to be insufficient in giving quantitative property predictions. Because machine learning offers an efficient way to identify important features from series data, we apply a 1D convolutional neural network data-driven framework to automatically extract the dominant predictive features from simulated temperature history. Very good predictions of material properties, especially ultimate tensile strength, are obtained using simulated thermal history data. To further interpret the convolutional neural network predictions, we visualize the extracted features produced on each convolutional layer and compare the convolutional neural network detected features of thermal histories for high andmore »low ultimate tensile strength cases. A key result is the determination that thermal histories in both high and moderate temperature regimes affect material properties.« less