skip to main content

Title: Hyperspectral imaging and characterization of allergic contact dermatitis in the short‐wave infrared
Short-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging is applied to diagnose and monitor a case of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) due to poison ivy exposure in one subject. This approach directly demonstrates increased tissue fluid content in ACD lesional skin with a spectral signature that matches the spectral signature of intradermally injected normal saline. The best contrast between the affected and unaffected skin is achieved through a selection of specific wavelengths at 1070, 1340 and 1605 nm and combining them in a pseudo-red-green-blue color space. An image derived from these wavelengths normalized to unaffected skin defines a "tissue fluid index" that may aid in the quantitative diagnosis and monitoring of ACD. Further clinical testing of this promising approach towards disease detection and monitoring with tissue fluid content quantification is warranted.
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Biophotonics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The standard of clinical care in many pediatric and neonatal neurocritical care units involves continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics using hard-wired devices that physically adhere to the skin and connect to base stations that commonly mount on an adjacent wall or stand. Risks of iatrogenic skin injuries associated with adhesives that bond such systems to the skin and entanglements of the patients and/or the healthcare professionals with the wires can impede clinical procedures and natural movements that are critical to the care, development, and recovery of pediatric patients. This paper presents a wireless, miniaturized, and mechanically soft, flexible device thatmore »supports measurements quantitatively comparable to existing clinical standards. The system features a multiphotodiode array and pair of light-emitting diodes for simultaneous monitoring of systemic and cerebral hemodynamics, with ability to measure cerebral oxygenation, heart rate, peripheral oxygenation, and potentially cerebral pulse pressure and vascular tone, through the utilization of multiwavelength reflectance-mode photoplethysmography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Monte Carlo optical simulations define the tissue-probing depths for source–detector distances and operating wavelengths of these systems using magnetic resonance images of the head of a representative pediatric patient to define the relevant geometries. Clinical studies on pediatric subjects with and without congenital central hypoventilation syndrome validate the feasibility for using this system in operating hospitals and define its advantages relative to established technologies. This platform has the potential to substantially enhance the quality of pediatric care across a wide range of conditions and use scenarios, not only in advanced hospital settings but also in clinics of lower- and middle-income countries.« less
  2. Needle-free jet injectors (NFJIs) are one of the alternatives to hypodermic needles for transdermal drug delivery. These devices use a high-velocity jet stream to puncture the skin and deposit drugs in subcutaneous tissue. NFJIs typically exhibit two phases of jet injection – namely – an initial peak-pressure phase (< 5 ms), followed by a constant jet speed injection phase (≳ 5 ms). In NFJIs, jet velocity and jet diameter are tailored to achieve the required penetration depth for a particular target tissue (e.g., intradermal, intramuscular, etc.). Jet diameter and jet velocity, together with the injectant volume, guide the design ofmore »the NFJI cartridge and thus the required driving pressure. For device manufacturers, it is important to rapidly and accurately estimate the cartridge pressure and jet velocities to ensure devices can achieve the correct operational conditions and reach the target tissue. And thus, we seek to understand how cartridge design and fluid properties affect the jet velocity and pressure profiles in this process. Starting with experimental plunger displacement data, transient numerical simulations were performed to study the jet velocity profile and stagnation pressure profile. We observe that fluid viscosity and cartridge-plunger friction are the two most important considerations in tailoring the cartridge geometry to achieve a given jet velocity. Using empirical correlations for the pressure loss for a given cartridge geometry, we extend the applicability of an existing mathematical approach to accurately predict the jet hydrodynamics. By studying a range of cartridge geometries such as asymmetric sigmoid contractions, we see that the power of actuation sources and nozzle geometry can be tailored to deliver drugs with different fluid viscosities to the intradermal region.« less
  3. The emerging sector of offshore kelp aquaculture represents an opportunity to produce biofuel feedstock to help meet growing energy demand. Giant kelp represents an attractive aquaculture crop due to its rapid growth and production, however precision farming over large scales is required to make this crop economically viable. These demands necessitate high frequency monitoring to ensure outplant success, maximum production, and optimum quality of harvested biomass, while the long distance from shore and large necessary scales of production makes in person monitoring impractical. Remote sensing offers a practical monitoring solution and nascent imaging technologies could be leveraged to provide dailymore »products of the kelp canopy and subsurface structures over unprecedented spatial scales. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of remote sensing from satellites and aerial and underwater autonomous vehicles as potential monitoring platforms for offshore kelp aquaculture farms. Decadal-scale analyses of the Southern California Bight showed that high offshore summertime cloud cover restricts the ability of satellite sensors to provide high frequency direct monitoring of these farms. By contrast, daily monitoring of offshore farms using sensors mounted to aerial and underwater drones seems promising. Small Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (sUAS) carrying lightweight optical sensors can provide estimates of canopy area, density, and tissue nitrogen content on the time and space scales necessary for observing changes in this highly dynamic species. Underwater color imagery can be rapidly classified using deep learning models to identify kelp outplants on a longline farm and high acoustic returns of kelp pneumatocysts from side scan sonar imagery signal an ability to monitor the subsurface development of kelp fronds. Current sensing technologies can be used to develop additional machine learning and spectral algorithms to monitor outplant health and canopy macromolecular content, however future developments in vehicle and infrastructure technologies are necessary to reduce costs and transcend operational limitations for continuous deployment in an offshore setting.« less
  4. Timely updates of carbon stock distribution are needed to better understand the impacts of deforestation and degradation on forest carbon stock dynamics. This research aimed to explore an approach for estimating aboveground carbon density (ACD) in the Brazilian Amazon through integration of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and a limited number of light detection and ranging (Lidar) data samples using linear regression (LR) and random forest (RF) algorithms, respectively. Airborne LiDAR data at 23 sites across the Brazilian Amazon were collected and used to calculate ACD. The ACD estimation model, which was developed by Longo et al. in the samemore »study area, was used to map ACD distribution in the 23 sites. The LR and RF methods were used to develop ACD models, in which the samples extracted from LiDAR-estimated ACD were used as dependent variables and MODIS-derived variables were used as independent variables. The evaluation of modeling results indicated that ACD can be successfully estimated with a coefficient of determination of 0.67 and root mean square error of 4.18 kg C/m2 using RF based on spectral indices. The mixed pixel problem in MODIS data is a major factor in ACD overestimation, while cloud contamination and data saturation are major factors in ACD underestimation. These uncertainties in ACD estimation using MODIS data make it difficult to examine annual ACD dynamics of degradation and growth, however this method can be used to examine the deforestation-induced ACD loss.« less
  5. Coral communities in the Caribbean face a new and deadly threat in the form of the highly virulent multi-host stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD). In late January of 2019, a disease with signs and characteristics matching that of SCTLD was found affecting a reef off the coast of St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Identification of its emergence in the USVI provided the opportunity to document the initial evolution of its spatial distribution, coral species susceptibility characteristics, and its comparative impact on coral cover at affected and unaffected coral reef locations. Re-assessments at sentinel sites and long-termmore »monitoring locations were used to track the spread of the disease, assess species affected, and quantify its impact. The disease was initially limited to the southwest of St. Thomas for several months, then spread around the island and to the neighboring island of St. John to the east. Differences in disease prevalence among species were similar to reports of SCTLD from other regions. Highly affected species included Colpophyllia natans , Eusmilia fastigiata , Montastraea cavernosa , Orbicella spp., and Pseudodiploria strigosa . Dendrogyra cylindrus and Meandrina meandrites were also highly affected but showed more variability in disease prevalence, likely due to initial low abundances and the rapid loss of colonies due to disease. Siderastrea spp. were less affected and showed lower prevalence. Species previously reported as unaffected or data deficient that were found to be affected by SCTLD included Agaricia spp., Madracis spp., and Mycetophyllia spp. We also observed multi-focal lesions at SCTLD-affected sites on colonies of Porites astreoides , despite that poritids have previously been considered low or not susceptible to SCTLD. Loss of coral cover due to acute tissue loss diseases, which were predominantly SCTLD, was significant at several monitoring locations and was more impactful than previous mass bleaching events at some sites. There are no signs that the USVI SCTLD outbreak is abating, therefore it is likely that this disease will become widespread across the U.S. Caribbean and British Virgin Islands in the near future.« less