skip to main content

Title: Experimental and theoretical evidence for hydrogen doping in polymer solution-processed indium gallium oxide

The field-effect electron mobility of aqueous solution-processed indium gallium oxide (IGO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is significantly enhanced by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) addition to the precursor solution, a >70-fold increase to 7.9 cm2/Vs. To understand the origin of this remarkable phenomenon, microstructure, electronic structure, and charge transport of IGO:PVA film are investigated by a battery of experimental and theoretical techniques, including In K-edge and Ga K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS); resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS); ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS); Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS); composition-/processing-dependent TFT properties; high-resolution solid-state1H,71Ga, and115In NMR spectroscopy; and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) analysis with ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) liquid-quench simulations. The71Ga{1H} rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR and other data indicate that PVA achieves optimal H doping with a Ga···H distance of ∼3.4 Å and conversion from six- to four-coordinate Ga, which together suppress deep trap defect localization. This reduces metal-oxide polyhedral distortion, thereby increasing the electron mobility. Hydroxyl polymer doping thus offers a pathway for efficient H doping in green solvent-processed metal oxide films and the promise of high-performance, ultra-stable metal oxide semiconductor electronics with simple binary compositions.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1729779 1919789
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10174973
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Volume:
117
Issue:
31
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 18231-18239
ISSN:
0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Potassium is used extensively as a promoter with iron catalysts in Fisher–Tropsch synthesis, water–gas shift reactions, steam reforming, and alcohol synthesis. In this paper, the identification of potassium chemical states on the surface of iron catalysts is studied to improve our understanding of the catalytic system. Herein, potassium-doped iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanomaterials are synthesized under variable calcination temperatures (400–800 °C) using an incipient wetness impregnation method. The synthesis also varies the content of potassium nitrate deposited on superfine iron oxide with a diameter of 3 nm (Nanocat®) to reach atomic ratios of 100 Fe:x K (x = 0–5). The structure, composition, and properties of the synthesized materials are investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The hematite phase of iron oxide retains its structure up to 700 °C without forming any new mixed phase. For compositions as high as 100 Fe:5 K, potassium nitrate remains stable up to 400 °C, but at 500 °C, it starts to decompose into nitrites and, at only 800 °C, it completely decomposes to potassiummore »oxide (K2O) and a mixed phase, K2Fe22O34. The doping of potassium nitrate on the surface of α-Fe2O3 provides a new material with potential applications in Fisher–Tropsch catalysis, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemical processes.« less
  2. The discovery of oxide electronics is of increasing importance today as one of the most promising new technologies and manufacturing processes for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications such as next-generation displays, batteries, solar cells, memory devices, and photodetectors[1]. The high potential use seen in oxide electronics is due primarily to their high carrier mobilities and their ability to be fabricated at low temperatures[2]. However, since the majority of oxide semiconductors are n-type oxides, current applications are limited to unipolar devices, eventually developing oxide-based bipolar devices such as p-n diodes and complementary metal-oxide semiconductors. We have contributed to a wide range of oxide semiconductors and their electronics and optoelectronic device applications. Particularly, we have demonstrated n-type oxide-based thin film transistors (TFT), integrating In 2 O 3 -based n-type oxide semiconductors from binary cation materials to ternary cation species including InZnO, InGaZnO (IGZO), and InAlZnO. We have suggested channel/metallization contact strategies to achieve stable and high TFT performance[3, 4], identified vacancy-based native defect doping mechanisms[5], suggested interfacial buffer layers to promote charge injection capability[6], and established the role of third cation species on the carrier generation and carrier transport[7]. More recently, we have reported facile manufacturing of p-type SnOx throughmore »reactive magnetron sputtering from a Sn metal target[8]. The fabricated p-SnOx was found to be devoid of metallic phase of Sn from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and demonstrated stable performance in a fully oxide-based p-n heterojunction together with n-InGaZnO. The oxide-based p-n junctions exhibited a high rectification ratio greater than 10 3 at ±3 V, a low saturation current of ~2x10 -10 , and a small turn-on voltage of -0.5 V. In this presentation, we review recent achievements and still remaining issues in transition metal oxide semiconductors and their device applications, in particular, bipolar applications including p-n heterostructures and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as well as single polarity devices such as TFTs and memristors. In addition, the fundamental mechanisms of carrier transport behaviors and doping mechanisms that govern the performance of these oxide-based devices will also be discussed. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 20011028) by KRISS. K.N. was supported by Basic Science Research Program (NRF-2021R11A1A01051246) through the NRF Korea funded by the Ministry of Education. REFERENCES [1] K. Nomura et al. , Nature, vol. 432, no. 7016, pp. 488-492, Nov 25 2004. [2] D. C. Paine et al. , Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 17, pp. 5894-5898, Jul 1 2008. [3] S. Lee et al. , Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109, no. 6, p. 063702, Mar 15 2011, Art. no. 063702. [4] S. Lee et al. , Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 25, p. 252103, 2014. [5] S. Lee et al. , Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 5, p. 052101, Feb 4 2013, Art. no. 052101. [6] M. Liu et al. , ACS Applied Electronic Materials, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 2703-2711, 2021/06/22 2021. [7] A. Reed et al. , Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 10.1039/D0TC02655G vol. 8, no. 39, pp. 13798-13810, 2020. [8] D. H. Lee et al. , ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 13, no. 46, pp. 55676-55686, 2021/11/24 2021.« less
  3. Metal nitrides are intensely investigated because they can offer high melting points, excellent corrosion resistance, high hardness, electronic and magnetic properties superior to the corresponding metals/metal oxides. Thus, they are used in diverse applications including refractory materials, semiconductors, elec- tronic devices, and energy storage/conversion systems. Here, we present a sim- ple, novel, scalable and general route to metal nitride precursors by reactions of metal chlorides with hexamethyldisilazane [HMDS, (Me3 Si)2 NH] in tetrahydro- furan or acetonitrile at low temperatures (ambient to 60◦C/N2). Such reactions have received scant attention in the literature. The work reported here focuses primarily on the Al-HMDS precursor pro- duced from the reaction of AlCl3 with HMDS (mole ratio = 1:3) characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, and multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRs) for chemi- cal and structural analyses. The Al-HMDS precursor heated to 1600◦C/4 h/N2 produces aluminum nitride, characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X- ray spectroscopy, and magic-angle spinning NMR. On heating to 800–1200◦C/4 h/N2, the precursor transforms to an amorphous, oxygen-sensitive powder with very high surface areas (>200 m2/g) indicating nanosized particles, which can be used as additives to polymermore »matrices to modify their thermal stabilities. Al2O3 is also presented in the final product after heating, due to its high susceptibility to oxidation. This approach was extended via proof-of-concept studies to other metal chloride systems, including Zn-HMDS, Cu-HMDS, Fe-HMDS, and Bi-HMDS. The formed precursors are volatile, offering the potential utility as gas-phase deposition pre- cursors for their corresponding metal nitrides.« less
  4. Oxide dissolution is important for metal extraction from ores and has become an attractive route for the preparation of inks for thin film solution deposition; however, oxide dissolution is often kinetically challenging. While binary “alkahest” systems comprised of thiols and N -donor species, such as amines, are known to dissolve a wide range of oxides, the mechanism of dissolution and identity of the resulting solute(s) remain unstudied. Here, we demonstrate facile dissolution of both bulk synthetic and natural mineral ZnO samples using an “alkahest” that operates via reaction with thiophenol and 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) to give a single, pseudotetrahedral Zn(SPh) 2 (MeIm) 2 molecular solute identified by X-ray crystallography. The kinetics of ZnO dissolution were measured using solution 1 H NMR, and the reaction was found to be zero-order in the presence of excess ligands, with more electron withdrawing para -substituted thiophenols resulting in faster dissolution. A negative entropy of activation was measured by Eyring analysis, indicating associative ligand binding in, or prior to, the rate determining step. Combined experimental and computational surface binding studies on ZnO reveal stronger, irreversible thiophenol binding compared to MeIm, leading to a proposed dissolution mechanism initiated by thiol binding to the ZnO surface with themore »liberation of water, followed by alternating MeIm and thiolate ligand additions, and ultimately cleavage of the ligated zinc complex from the ZnO surface. Design rules garnered from the mechanistic insight provided by this study should inform the dissolution of other bulk oxides into inks for solution processed thin films.« less
  5. The discovery of oxide electronics is of increasing importance today as one of the most promising new technologies and manufacturing processes for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications such as next-generation displays, batteries, solar cells, and photodetectors. The high potential use seen in oxide electronics is due primarily to their high carrier mobilities and their ability to be fabricated at low temperatures. However, since the majority of oxide semiconductors are n-type oxides, current applications are limited to unipolar devices, eventually developing oxide-based bipolar devices such as p-n diodes and complementary metal-oxide semiconductors. We have contributed to wide range of oxide semiconductors and their electronics and optoelectronic device applications. Particularly, we have demonstrated n-type oxide-based thin film transistors (TFT), integrating In2O3-based n-type oxide semiconductors from binary cation materials to ternary cation species including InZnO, InGaZnO (IGZO), and InAlZnO. We have suggested channel/metallization contact strategies to achieve stable TFT performance, identified vacancy-based native defect doping mechanisms, suggested interfacial buffer layers to promote charge injection capability, and established the role of third cation species on the carrier generation and carrier transport. More recently, we have reported facile manufacturing of p-type SnOx through reactive magnetron sputtering from a Sn metal target. The fabricatedmore »p-SnOx was found to be devoid of metallic phase of Sn from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and demonstrated stable performance in a fully oxide based p-n heterojunction together with n-InGaZnO. The oxide-based p-n junctions exhibited a high rectification ratio greater than 103 at ±3 V, a low saturation current of ~2x10-10, and a small turn-on voltage of -0.5 V. With all the previous achievements and investigations about p-type oxide semiconductors, challenges remain for implementing p-type oxide realization. For the implementation of oxide-based p-n heterojunctions, the performance needs to be further enhanced. The current on/off ration may be limited, in our device structure, due to either high reverse saturation current (or current density) or non-ideal performance. In this study, two rational strategies are suggested to introduce an “intrinsic” layer, which is expected to reduce the reverse saturation current between p-SnOx and n-IGZO and hence increase the on/off ratio. The carrier density of n-IGZO is engineered in-situ during the sputtering process, by which compositionally homogeneous IGZO with significantly reduced carrier density is formed at the interface. Then, higher carrier density IGZO is formed continuously on the lower carrier density IGZO during the sputtering process without any exposure of the sample to the air. Alternatively, heterogeneous oxides of MgO and SiO2 are integrated into between p-SnOx and n-IGZO, by which the defects on the surface can be passivated. The interfacial properties are thoroughly investigated using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The I-V characteristics are compared between the set of devices integrated with two types of “intrinsic” layers. The current research results are expected to contribute to the development of p-type oxides and their industrial application manufacturing process that meets current processing requirements, such as mass production in p-type oxide semiconductors.« less