skip to main content

Title: Three New Freshwater Cochliopodium Species (Himatismenida, Amoebozoa) from the Southeastern United States
Cochliopodium is a lens-shaped genus of Amoebozoa characterized by a flexi- ble layer of microscopic dorsal scales. Recent taxonomic and molecular studies reported cryptic diversity in this group and suggested that the often-used scale morphology is not a reliable character for species delineation in the genus. Here, we described three freshwater Cochliopodium spp. from the southeast- ern United States based on morphological, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and molecular data. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis and pairwise com- parison of COI sequences of Cochliopodium species showed that each of these monoclonal cultures were genetically distinct from each other and any described species with molecular data. Two of the new isolates, “crystal UK- YT2” (Cochliopodium crystalli n. sp.) and “crystal-like UK-YT3” (C. jaguari n. sp.), formed a clade with C. larifeili, which all share a prominent microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and have cubical-shaped crystals. The “Marrs Spring UK-YT4” isolate, C. marrii n. sp., was 100% identical to “Cochliopodium sp. SG-2014 KJ569724.” These sequences formed a clade with C. actinophorum and C. arabianum. While the new isolates can be separated morphologically, most of the taxonomic features used in the group show plasticity; therefore, Cochliopodium species can only be reliably identified with the help of molecu- lar more » data. « less
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The journal of eukaryotic microbiology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The Rhoptrobothriidae are one of the more enigmatic families of cestodes of elasmobranchs. Opinions on the taxonomic status of the family’s three original genera (i.e., Myzophyllobothrium, Rhoptrobothrium, and Myzocephalus) have varied over the 115 years since they were erected. Some authors have considered all three valid, others have considered Rhoptrobothrium to be a synonym of Myzopyllobothrium or a genus inquirendum, yet others have considered Myzocephalus to be a synonym of the phyllobothriid genus Thysanocephalum. All three genera were established for specimens collected from eagle rays off Sri Lanka. The erection of Mixophyllobothrium for two specimens from a cowtail stingray off India three decades ago added additional confusion to the situation, with some authors considering it valid and others a synonym of Myzocephalus. These disagreements stem largely from differences in interpretation of the complex morphology of the scolex of members of these genera. Furthermore, with the exception of Rhoptrobothrium comprising four species, each genus is monotypic. All but Rhoptrobothrium has not been considered in detail for nearly a century, largely because of a lack of available material. The taxonomic status of these genera is assessed here based on light and scanning electron microscopy, and molecular data generated from new material collectedmore »from eagle rays off Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo, Japan, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam. Morphological work indicates that the genera differ largely only in the degree of folding of the four remi that extend from the cephalic peduncle. A molecular phylogeny based on sequence data for the D1–D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene, which include new data for eight specimens of four species, indicates that Myzophyllobothrium, Myzocephalus, and Rhoptrobothrium are not mutually monophyletic. The latter two genera and Mixophyllobothrium are considered synonyms of Myzophyllobothrium and five species are transferred to that genus. Myzophyllobothrium okamuri n. comb. is considered a species inquirendum. Myzophyllobothrium nagasawai n. sp. is described from Aetobatus narutobiei off Japan. Myzophyllobothrium narinari n. comb. is re-described based on newly collected cestodes from the type host and locality (i.e., Aetobatus ocellatus off Sri Lanka). Despite consisting of only a single genus, the family status of the group is retained in recognition of the unusual configuration of the scolex, which bears four biloculate bothridia and four remi extending from the cephalic peduncle. The ordinal placement of the family remains uncertain, but affinities with the Phyllobothriidea, rather than “Tetraphyllidea” are considered.« less
  2. Haraldiophyllum hawaiiense sp. nov. is described as a new mesophotic alga and a new genus record for the Hawaiian Islands. Six specimens were collected at a depth range of 81-93 m from Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, and their morphology investigated, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses of the plastidial ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase–oxygenase large-subunit (rbcL) gene and a concatenated alignment of rbcL and nuclear large-subunit rRNA gene (LSU) sequences. Phylogenetic analyses supported H. hawaiiense sp. nov. as a distinct lineage within the genus Haraldiophyllum, and sister to a large clade containing the type species, H. bonnemaisonii, as well as H. crispatum and an undescribed European specimen. The six Hawaiian specimens were shown to be identical, but unique among other species of the genus as well as the recently segregated genus Neoharaldiophyllum, which comprises half of the species previously included in Haraldiophyllum. The vegetative morphology of H. hawaiiense sp. nov. resembles Neoharaldiophyllum udoense (formerly H. udoensis); however, no female or post-fertilization structures were found in the Hawaiian specimens to allow a more comprehensive comparison. The molecular phylogenies demonstrate that Haraldiophyllum is paraphyletic, suggesting either that the Myriogrammeae tribe includes undescribed genera, including Haraldiophyllum sensu stricto, or that Neoharaldiophyllum species should be transferredmore »into the genus Haraldiophyllum. However, based on vegetative morphology and molecular analyses, and pending resolution of this taxonomic issue, the Hawaiian specimens are placed within the genus Haraldiophyllum. This new record for the Hawaiian Islands highlights the novel biodiversity from mesophotic depths, reaffirming the need for further investigation into the biodiversity of Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems.« less
  3. Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey (Ed.)
    Abstract The genus Cryptopone Emery contains 25 species of litter and soil ants, 5 of which occur in the Americas. Cryptopone gilva (Roger) occurs in the southeastern United States and cloud forests of Mesoamerica, exhibiting an uncommon biogeographic disjunction observed most often in plants. We used phylogenomic data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs), as well as mitogenomes and legacy markers, to investigate phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and divergence dates among New World Cryptopone. Species delimitation was conducted using a standard approach and then tested using model-based molecular methods (SNAPP, BPP, SODA, and bPTP). We found that Cryptopone as currently constituted is polyphyletic, and that all the South American species belong to Wadeura Weber, a separate genus unrelated to Cryptopone. A single clade of true Cryptopone occurs in the Americas, restricted to North and Central America. This clade is composed of four species that originated ~4.2 million years ago. One species from the mountains of Guatemala is sister to the other three, favoring a vicariance hypothesis of diversification. The taxonomy of the New World Cryptopone and Wadeura is revised. Taxonomic changes are as follows: Wadeura Weber is resurrected, with new combinations W. guianensis Weber, W. holmgreni (Wheeler), and W. pauli (Fernandes &more »Delabie); C. guatemalensis (Forel) (rev. stat.) is raised to species and includes C. obsoleta (Menozzi) (syn. nov.). The following new species are described: Cryptopone gilvagrande, C. gilvatumida, and Wadeura holmgrenita. Cryptopone hartwigi Arnold is transferred to Fisheropone Schmidt and Shattuck (n. comb.). Cryptopone mirabilis (Mackay & Mackay 2010) is a junior synonym of Centromyrmex brachycola (Roger) (syn. nov.).« less
  4. Background Madagascar is famous for its extremely rich biodiversity; the island harbors predominantly endemic and threatened communities meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. Continuing ongoing efforts to inventory the Malagasy ant fauna, we revise the species currently placed in the myrmicine genus Aphaenogaster Mayr. One species described from Madagascar, Aphaenogaster friederichsi Forel, is synonymized with the Palearctic A. subterranea Latreille syn. nov. This species is considered neither native to Madagascar nor established in the region. This revision focuses on the balance of species in the A. swammerdami group which are all endemic to Madagascar. Methods The diversity of the Malagasy Aphaenogaster fauna was assessed via application of multiple lines of evidence involving quantitative morphometric, qualitative morphological, and DNA sequence data. (1) Morphometric investigation was based on hypothesis-free Nest Centroid clustering (NC-clustering) combined with PArtitioning based on Recursive Thresholding (PART) to estimate the number of morphological clusters and determine the most probable boundaries between them. This protocol provides a repeatable and testable approach to find patterns in continuous morphometric data. Species boundaries and the reliability of morphological clusters recognized by these exploratory analyses were tested via confirmatory Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). (2) Qualitative, external morphological characteristics (e.g., shape, coloration patterns, setaemore »number) were subjectively evaluated in order to create a priori grouping hypotheses, and confirm and improve species delimitation. (3) Species delimitation analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene fragments were carried out to test the putative species previously delimited by morphological and morphometric analyses. Results Five species can be inferred based on the integrated evaluation of multiple lines of evidence; of these, three are new to science: Aphaenogaster bressleri sp. n ., A. gonacantha (Emery, 1899), A. makay sp. n. , A. sahafina sp. n. , and A. swammerdami Forel, 1886. In addition, three new synonymies were found for A. swammerdami Forel, 1886 ( A. swammerdami clara Santschi, 1915 syn. n. , A. swammerdami curta Forel, 1891 syn. n. and A. swammerdami spinipes Santschi, 1911 syn. n. ). Descriptions and redefinitions for each taxon and an identification key for their worker castes using qualitative traits and morphometric data are given. Geographic maps depicting species distributions and biological information regarding nesting habits for the species are also provided.« less
  5. Coniochaeta (Coniochaetaceae, Ascomycota) is a diverse genus that includes a striking richness of undescribed species with endophytic lifestyles, especially in temperate and boreal plants and lichens. These endophytes frequently represent undescribed species that can clarify evolutionary relationships and trait evolution within clades of previously classified fungi. Here we extend the geographic, taxonomic, and host sampling presented in a previous analysis of the clade containing Coniochaeta endophytica, a recently described species occurring as an endophyte from North America; and C. prunicola, associated with necroses of stonefruit trees in South Africa. Our multi-locus analysis and examination of metadata for endophyte strains housed in the Robert L. Gilbertson Mycological Herbarium at the University of Arizona (ARIZ) (1) expands the geographic range of C. endophytica across a wider range of the USA than recognized previously; (2) shows that the ex-type of C. prunicola (CBS 120875) forms a well-supported clade with endophytes of native hosts in North Carolina and Michigan, USA; (3) reveals that the ex-paratype for C. prunicola (CBS 121445) forms a distinct clade with endophytes from North Carolina and Russia, is distinct morphologically from the other taxa considered here, and is described herein as Coniochaeta lutea; and (4) describes a new species, Coniochaetamore »palaoa, here identified as an endophyte of multiple plant lineages in the highlands and piedmont of North Carolina. Separation of CBS 120875 and CBS 121445 into C. prunicola sensu stricto and C. lutea is consistent with previously described genomic differences between these isolates, and morphological and functional differences among the four species (C. endophytica, C. prunicola, C. palaoa, and C. lutea) underscore the phylogenetic relationships described here. The resolving power of particular loci and the emerging perspective on the host- and geographic range of Coniochaeta and the C. endophytica / C. prunicola clade are discussed.« less