It is well known that text-based passwords are hard to remember and that users prefer simple (and non-secure) passwords. However, despite extensive research on the topic, no principled account exists for explaining when a password will be forgotten. This paper contributes new data and a set of analyses building on the ecological theory of memory and forgetting. We propose that human memory naturally adapts according to an estimate of how often a password will be needed, such that often used, important passwords are less likely to be forgotten. We derive models for login duration and odds of recall as a function of rate of use and number of uses thus far. The models achieved a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.8 seconds for login duration and 0.09 for recall odds for data collected in a month-long field experiment where frequency of password use was controlled. The theory and data shed new light on password management, account usage, password security and memorability.
Recognition and Recall of Geographic Data In Cartograms
In this paper we investigate the memorability of two types of cartograms, both in terms of recognition of the visualization and recall of the data. A cartogram, or a value-by-area map, is a representation of a map in which geographic regions are modified to reflect a given statistic, such as population or income. Of the many different types of cartograms, the contiguous and Dorling types are among the most popular and most effective. With this in mind, we evaluate the memorability of these two cartogram types with a human-subjects study, using task-based experimental data and cartogram visualization tasks based on Bertin’s map reading levels. In particular, our results indicate that Dorling cartograms are associated with better recall of general patterns and trends. This, together with additional significant differences between the two most popular cartogram types, has implications for the design and use of cartograms, in the context of memorability.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 13th International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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